The culture of Australia is a Western culturederived primarily from Britain but also influenced by the unique geography of Australiathe cultural input of AboriginalTorres Strait Islander and other Australian people. The British colonization of Australia began inand waves of multi-ethnic migration followed.
Evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage includes the predominance of the English languagethe existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and Australian culture and customs language development monarchyAmerican constitutionalism st and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, and the popularity of sports originating in or influenced by the British Isles.
Australian culture has diverged significantly since British settlement. Aboriginal people are believed to have arrived as early as 60, years ago, and evidence of Aboriginal art in Australia dates back at least 30, years.
Stories of outlaws like the bushranger Ned Kelly have endured in Australian musiccinema and literature. The Australian gold rushes from the s brought wealth as well as new social tensions to Australia, including the miners' Eureka Stockade rebellion.
The colonies Australian culture and customs language development elected parliaments and rights for workers and women before most other Western nations. Federation in evidenced a growing sense of national identity that had developed over the latter half of the 19th century, as seen in the works of the Heidelberg School painters and writers like Banjo PatersonHenry Lawson and Dorothea Mackellar.
After the second war, 6. Over time, the diverse food, lifestyle and cultural practices of immigrants have been absorbed into mainstream Australian culture.
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The oldest surviving cultural traditions in Australia—and some of the oldest surviving cultural traditions on earth—are those of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Their ancestors have inhabited Australia for between 40, and 60, years, living a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Inthe Indigenous population was estimated atpeople, or 2. The arrival of the first British settlers at what is now Sydney in introduced Western civilisation to the Australian continent.
Although Sydney was initially used by the British as a place of banishment for prisoners, the arrival of the British laid the foundations for Australia's democratic institutions and rule of law, and introduced the long traditions of English literatureWestern art and music, and Judeo-Christian ethics and religious outlook to a new continent.
The British Empire expanded across the whole continent and established six colonies. The colonies were originally penal colonies, with the exception of Western Australia and South Australiawhich were established as a "free colony" with no convicts and a vision for a territory with political and religious freedoms, together with opportunities for wealth through business and pastoral investments.
Contact between the indigenous Australians and the new settlers ranged from cordiality to violent conflict, but the diseases brought by Europeans were devastating to Aboriginal populations and culture.
According to the historian Geoffrey Blaineyduring the colonial period: The main conqueror of Aborigines was to be disease and its ally, demoralisation. William Wentworth established Australia's first political party in to demand democratic government for New South Wales.
From the s, the colonies set about writing constitutions which produced democratically advanced parliaments as Constitutional Monarchies with Queen Victoria as the head of state. Women's suffrage in Australia was achieved from the s. This was the first legislation in the world permitting women to stand for political office and, inCatherine Helen Spence became the first female political candidate.
During the colonial era, distinctive forms of Australian artmusiclanguage and literature developed through movements like the Heidelberg school of painters and the work of bush balladeers like Henry Lawson and Banjo Patersonwhose poetry and prose did much to promote an egalitarian Australian culture and customs language development outlook which placed a high value on the concept of mateship. Games like cricket and rugby were imported from Britain at this time and with a local variant of football, Australian Rules Footballbecame treasured cultural traditions.
The Commonwealth of Australia was founded inafter a series of referenda conducted in the British colonies of Australasia. The Australian Constitution established a federal democracy and enshrined human rights such as sections 41 right to vote80 right to trial by jury and freedom of religion as foundational principles of Australian law and included economic rights such as restricting the government to acquiring property only "on just terms".
Voting is compulsory in Australia and government is essentially formed by a group commanding a majority of seats in the Australian House of Representatives selecting a leader who becomes Prime Minister. Australia remains a constitutional monarchy in which the largely ceremonial and procedural duties of the monarch are Australian culture and customs language development by a Governor General selected by the Australian government.
These wars profoundly affected Australia's sense of nationhood and a proud military legend developed around the spirit of Australia's ANZAC troops, who came to symbolise the virtues of mateship, courage and endurance for the nation. The Australian colonies had a period of extensive multi-ethnic immigration during the Australian gold rushes of the latter half of the 19th century, but following Federation inthe Parliament instigated the White Australia Policy that gave preference to British migrants and ensured that Australia remained a predominantly Anglo-Celtic society until well into the 20th century.
The post- World War II immigration program saw the policy dismantled by successive governments, permitting large numbers of Southern European, and later Asian and Middle Eastern migrants to Australian culture and customs language development.
The Menzies Government and Holt Government dismantled the legal barriers to multi-ethnic immigration and by the s, the Whitlam and Fraser Governments were promoting multiculturalism. Some States and Territories of Australia retained discriminatory laws relating to voting rights for Aborigines into the s, at which point full legal equality was established.
A referendum to include all Aborigines in the national electoral roll census was overwhelmingly approved by voters. Ina group of Pintupi people who were living a traditional hunter-gatherer desert-dwelling life were tracked down in the Gibson Desert and brought into a settlement. They are believed to have been the last uncontacted tribe. While the British cultural influence remained strong into the 21st century, other influences became increasingly important.
The Hawaiian sport of surfing was adopted in Australia where a beach culture and the locally developed surf lifesaving movement was already burgeoning in the early 20th century. American pop culture and cinema were embraced in the 20th century, with country music and later rock and roll sweeping Australia, aided by the new technology of television and a host of Australian culture and customs language development content.
The Melbourne Olympics announced a confident, prosperous post-war nation, and new cultural icons like Australian country music star Slim Dusty and dadaist Barry Humphries expressed a uniquely Australian identity.
Australia's contemporary immigration program has two components: The population tripled in the six decades to around 21 million inincluding people originating from countries.
Contemporary Australia is a pluralistic society, rooted in liberal democratic traditions and espousing informality and egalitarianism as key societal values. While strongly influenced by Anglo-Celtic origins, the culture of Australia has also been shaped by multi-ethnic migration which has influenced all aspects of Australian life, including business, the arts, cuisinesense of humour and sporting tastes.
Contemporary Australia is also a culture that is profoundly influenced by global movements of meaning and communication, including advertising culture. In turn, globalizing corporations from Holden to Exxon have attempted to associate their brand with Australian cultural identity. This Australian culture and customs language development intensified from the s onwards.
According to Paul James. When the Australian colonies federated on 1 Januaryan official competition for a design for an Australian flag was held.
The design that was adopted contains the Union Flag in the left corner, symbolising Australia's historical links to the United Kingdomthe stars of the Southern Cross on the right half of the flag indicating Australia's geographical location, and the seven-pointed Federation Star in the bottom left representing the six states and the territories of Australia.
Other official flags include  the Australian Aboriginal Flagthe Torres Strait Islander Flag and the flags of the individual states and territories. The Australian Coat of Arms was granted by King George V in and consists of a shield containing the badges of the six states, within an ermine border.
The crest above the shield and helmet is a seven-pointed gold star on a blue and gold wreath, Australian culture and customs language development the 6 states and the territories. The shield is supported by a red kangaroo and an emu. Green and gold were confirmed as Australia's national colours inthough the colours had Australian culture and customs language development adopted by many national sporting teams long before this.
Reflecting the country's status as a constitutional monarchya number of royal symbols exist in Australia. These include symbols of the monarch of Australiaas well as the monarch's Vice-regal representatives. Despite the fact that the Queen of Australia is not resident in Australia, the Crown and royal institutions remain part of Australian life.
The Australian currencyincluding all coins and the five dollar note, bears an image of the reigning monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. Through royal patronage there are many organisations in Australia that have been granted a Royal prefix. These organisations, including branches of the Australian Defence Forceoften incorporate royal symbols into their imagery. Although Australia has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language.
Australian English is a major variety of the language which is immediately distinguishable from BritishAmericanand other national dialects by virtue Australian culture and customs language development its unique accents, pronunciations, idioms and vocabulary, although its spelling more closely reflects British versions rather than American.
The next most common languages spoken at home are Mandarin 1. It is believed that there were between and Australian Aboriginal languages at the time of first European contact, but only about 70 Australian culture and customs language development these have survived and all but 20 are now endangered.
An indigenous language is the main language for 0. Comedy is an important part of the Australian identity. The "Australian sense of humour" is often characterised as dry, irreverent and ironic, exemplified by the works of performing artists like Barry Humphries and Paul Hogan.
The convicts of the early colonial period helped establish anti-authoritarianism as a hallmark of Australian comedy.
Influential in the establishment of stoic, dry wit as a characteristic of Australian humour were the bush balladeers of the 19th century, including Henry Lawsonauthor of " The Loaded Dog ". The Dad and Dave series about a farming family was an enduring hit of the early 20th century.
In the s, satirical talk-show host Norman Gunston played by Garry McDonaldwith his malapropismssweep-over hair and poorly shaven face, rose to great popularity Australian culture and customs language development pioneering the satirical "ambush" interview technique and giving unique interpretations of pop songs. Roy and HG provide an affectionate but irreverent parody of Australia's obsession with sport.
The unique character and humour of Australian culture was defined in cartoons by immigrants, Emile Mercier and George Molnarand in the novel They're a Weird Mob by John O'Gradywhich looks at Sydney through the eyes of an Italian immigrant. The vaudeville talents of Graham KennedyDon Lane and Bert Newton earned popular success during the early years of Australian television.
The variety show Hey Hey It's Saturday screened for three decades. Among the best loved Australian sitcoms was Mother and Sonabout a divorcee who had moved back into the suburban home of his mother — Australian culture and customs language development sketch comedy has been the stalwart of Australian television.
The perceptive wit of Clive James and Andrew Denton has been popular in the talk-show interview style.
cultural traditions in Australia—and some...
Rolf Harris helped defined a comic tradition in Australian music. Cynical satire has had enduring popularity, with television series such as Frontlinetargeting the inner workings of "news and current affairs" TV journalism, The Hollowmenset in the office of the Prime Minister's political advisory spin department, and The Chaser's War Australian culture and customs language development Everythingwhich cynically examines domestic and international politics.
The annual Melbourne International Comedy Festival is one of the largest comedy festivals in the world, and a popular fixture on the city's cultural calendar. The arts in Australia — filmmusicpaintingtheatredance and crafts—have achieved international recognition.
While much of Australia's cultural output has traditionally tended to fit with general trends and styles in Western arts, the arts as practiced by indigenous Australians represent a unique Australian cultural tradition, and Australia's landscape and history have contributed to some unique variations in the styles inherited by Australia's various migrant communities.
As the convict era passed—captured most famously in Marcus Clarke 's For the Term of His Natural Life Australian culture and customs language development, a seminal work of Tasmanian Gothic  —the bush and Australian daily life assumed primacy as subjects. Charles HarpurHenry Kendall and Adam Lindsay Gordon won fame in the midth century for their lyric nature poems and patriotic verse. Gordon drew on Australian colloquy and idiom; Clarke assessed his work as "the beginnings of a national school of Australian poetry".
Founded Australian culture and customs language developmentThe Bulletin did much to create the idea of an Australian national character—one of anti-authoritarianismegalitarianismmateship and a concern for the " battler "—forged against the brutalities of the bush. This image was expressed within the works of its bush poetsthe most famous of which are Henry Lawsonwidely regarded as Australia's finest short-story writer, and Banjo Patersonauthor of classics such as " Clancy of the Overflow " and " The Man From Snowy River " In a literary debate about the nature of life in the bush, Lawson said Paterson was a romantic while Paterson attacked Lawson's pessimistic outlook.
Dennis wrote humour in the Australian vernacular, notably in the verse novel The Songs of a Sentimental Blokewhile Dorothy Mackellar wrote the iconic patriotic poem " My Country " which rejected prevailing fondness for England's "green and shaded lanes" and declared: The nationalist Jindyworobak Movement arose in the s and sought to develop a distinctive Australian poetry through the appropriation of Aboriginal languages and ideas.
A backlash resulted in the Ern Malley affair ofAustralia's most famous literary hoax. The legacy of Miles Franklinrenowned for her novel My Brilliant CareerAustralian culture and customs language development the Miles Franklin Awardwhich is "presented each year to a novel which is of the highest literary merit and presents Australian life in any of its phases".
Helen Garner 's novel Monkey Grip is widely considered one of Australia's first contemporary novels—she has since written both fiction and non-fiction work. Among the best known contemporary poets are Les Murray and Bruce Dawe.
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David Unaipon is known as the first indigenous author. The people and culture of Australia are varied and can offer a lot to Game Design & Development, Geography, Geology, Graphic Design, Health and Physical Australia has no official language, but the majority of the population speaks English as a first language.
Each has its own customs, cultures, and languages. Guide to Australian culture, society, language, etiquette, manners and protocol. Language acquisition is an integral component of “school tradition as a culturally appropriate foundation for language and literacy development . The oral nature of Australian Indigenous culture has implications for the.