Modern humans evolved in a context of global climatic fluctuation, reflected in oxygen isotope ratios in ice and deep-sea cores. Geological and faunal indicators are correlated to these. In the north, plant communities flourished or died back, in Africa, wetter or arid periods alternated, allowing human populations to spread initially, but when desert conditions returned, groups of humans may have been forced to
Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login north or east out of Africa.
In eastern Asia, climate was relatively stable, perhaps explaining stasis among Homo erectus. In the s, a multi-regional origin model was first proposed which stated that Homo sapiens arose from Homo ergaster populations in different areas after they had moved beyond Africa. Gene flow between populations at the edges of larger regions prevented divergence into more then Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login species.
By the s, others suggested that modern humans originated in Africa, and then moved out, having already evolved. Proponents of these theories never regarded them as mutually exclusive, but they have had a polarizing effect. Intermediary models have also been debated since the late s. Modern genetics and ancient DNA have provided strong but not unequivocal support for a single African origin.
Thus, the four main hypotheses are: Scholarly opinion is moving toward a consensus that modern humans evolved biologically in Africa. Even the complex Asian fossil record that is used to support multi-regionalism, no longer refutes African origins. Research now centers on how many dispersal events occurred; how these are reflected in modern human genetics; whether language origin was crucial to the process; and whether modern behavior emerged gradually or suddenly.
The subsequent spread of modern humans to Australia and the Americas is still hotly contested, and whether own species exchanged ideas, genes, or violence with archaic Homo species. Characteristics of modern Homo include cranial capacity greater Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login cc; a vertical frontal bone forehead ; a high and parallel-walled cranial vault; a rounded occipital region lacking a prominent occipital "Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login" and with a relatively flat angle of the cranial base; a non-continuous brow ridge expressed more clearly in males; a flat, non-projecting face below the expanded frontal braincase region; and a distinct chin.
Postcranially, modern Homo sapiens have long limbs with long distal limb segments, which are less robust than archaic Homo species. A tall, long-limbed, short-trunked body, adapted to hot climates, supports an African origin. Fossils pertinent to an African origin are few. Three chronological groupings are: A degree of morphological continuity is observable between groups.
Beginning in the s, different measures of genetic variability were tested, especially in the work of Rebecca Cann, including blood groups, Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login DNA, and the Y chromosome, which support a single origin. Interpretations were debated through the s. Afteryears ago, the archaeological record reveals new behavioral patterns, related to the biological emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens suggesting a new cognitive threshold had been crossed.
Previously, most work concentrated on Europe and related to a later period, but now a growing number of African Middle Stone Age sites are showing that people displayed modern behavior byyears ago: Anatomical changes in African Homo sapiens were most marked in cranial shape with little facial change, while European Neanderthals retained primitive crania but underwent facial modifications.
Neanderthal traits began to appearyears ago and coalesced byyears ago, coinciding with increased glacial cycles, and are most pronounced in northern latitudes, suggesting biological adaptation to cold, dry environments and a physically demanding lifestyle. Neanderthals retained cranial vaults resembling H.
Wear on front teeth suggests use as a vice-like tool. The nasal aperture and sinuses were large, and probably warmed and moistened cold, dry tundra air to protect the brain and respiration. The brain capacity was generally larger than H. Relatively short limbs retained body heat. Most Neanderthals died by their early 40s, a few lived into their 50s.
Mortality peaked in infancy and adolescence, coinciding with weaning, and the onset of adult activities, such as hunting. Charred plant remains at some sites indicate that they were important in the diet when available, although stable isotope analyses of bone suggest a diet of up to 90 percent meat.
Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login small animals were scavenged and hunted with hand-thrust spears of wood or with stone points. They used the Levallois flaking technique to produce predictably sized flakes and blades, and the discoidal method, yielding as many variously sized flakes as possible. Some were unmodified, others retouched into scrapers, denticulates, notches, points, and bifacial hand axes.
Neanderthals also worked wood, antler, and bone. They constructed simple hearths for warmth, light, and cooking using wood or coal, and sometimes paved wet floors with stones.
They used certain areas for trash disposal, tool-making, eating, resting.
Some groups buried some of their. Ocher fragments, pigments, and shells are found at several sites, but there is no convincing art. The Levant remained a major corridor for movement between Africa and Eurasia. Data suggest that Neanderthals and modern humans were, on occasion, "Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login" in this region.
Neanderthal burials occur as late as 45, years ago but may be as old asyears ago.
The first unequivocal modern human burials with Upper Paleolithic artifacts occur around 35, years ago, although Aurignacian stone and bone tools and bone jewelry from 45, years ago indicate they may have been in the Levant earlier. It may be that several discrete occupations reflect major biogeographic changes, with Neanderthals in the region during the severe cold conditions between about 71, and 60, years ago, when the earlier modern humans had become locally extinct.
Archaeological evidence indicates that at 50, years ago, both populations employed Middle Paleolithic Levalloiso-Mousterian toolkits. By at least 40, years ago, modern humans had dispersed into South Asia and Australia, the Caucasus and southeast Siberia, and Europe. New technological and social behaviors in the Upper Paleolithic may be linked to modern Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login expansion.
The actual date of colonization has long been debated. The distinctive earliest Upper Paleolithic industry in Europe, the Aurignacian after Aurignac rockshelter, Franceindicates that Homo sapiens reached southern Europe by around 45, years ago, and expanded along the coastal Mediterranean as far as Iberia by 40, years ago, due to mild climatic conditions. General consensus is that the Aurignacian was produced only by Homo sapiens and not by indigenous Neanderthals but there appears to be no hard and fast break between human and Neanderthal behavior.
Aurignacians were well established in Europe by 35, years ago and on "Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login" northern European plain Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login around 30, years ago. From this Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login, jewelry from teeth, ivory and shell circulated over a large, established exchange network. Prismatic blade technology was widely employed, and bone and antler points, awls, and needles are related to sophisticated weaponry and elaborate tailored clothing, aiding expansion into Siberia.
There are no convincing burials or dwelling structures, suggesting that a behavioral revolution was incomplete. It has proved impossible to prove a direct link between the arrival of modern humans and the extinction of Neanderthals. DNA evidence may point to low levels of interbreeding in the Near Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login. The Aurignacian ended around 28, years ago across Europe, and was succeeded by the Gravettian technocomplex after La Gravette, France: A later stage, to c.
A number of regional centers of occupation are recognized in the middle Upper Paleolithic: Central European sites were occupied for many months and much effort was invested in dwellings. The climate grew most severe between 21, and 19, years ago, and northern and high-altitude areas were abandoned. Humans crowded into southern European refuges, undergoing marked regionalization due to isolation.
From 18, years ago, as the climate improved, Europe was rapidly recolonized. Late Upper Paleolithic culture is referred to as the Magdalenian technocomplex after La Madeleine rockshelter, France.
First seen in Iberia and southern France, the culture spread to Russia and southern Europe, reaching Britain by 14, years ago, where it is called Creswellian. The exchange of stone and shells over km miles indicates that social networks were open and covered vast areas. Conical points and harpoons appear for the first time in the Late Magdalenian. Some sites reach very large sizes, and reflect occupation for several months of the year, perhaps a people congregated seasonally.
These often contain mobiliary art, such as exquisitely carved animal heads, Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login tools such as shaft-straighteners and atlatl crooks, notated bones, and stylized female carvings. No convincing evidence exists for human colonization of the Americas prior to the
Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login 15, years, perhaps because earlier, northern, glacial behavioral adaptations had not yet been invented.
These then permitted a last, major dispersal. It supported mammoth and Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, who crossed it before 10, years ago, when Beringia was submerged for the last time.
An ice-free corridor between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets may have served as a way south. Alternatively, the same people may have crossed the Bering Strait by boat, or along Pacific Rim coasts. A third argument, based on similarities in projectile in western Europe and the USA states that Solutreans made a "Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login" crossing. This is less plausible, as the Solutrean predates the similar American points by at least years, and such a crossing would have been difficult given the known technology of Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login period.
Archaeological, genetic, and "Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login" data point to eastern Eurasia, especially northeastern Siberia, as the source population for the Americas, with one or more population Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login. The relatively poor archaeology does not provide direct evidence of Paleoindian forebears, but artifacts, lifeways, and human skeletons at some sites suggest connections.
Linguistic and genetic evidence point to Asian sources with a complex colonization sequence. Others argue for one event before 20, years ago, after which proto-Paleoindian diverged into the three groups. Genetically, Amerindians fall into five haplotypes or clades that cluster in Siberia. However, there is often little correspondence between linguistic and genetic diversity.
Surprising genetic similarity is found among people from Alaska to Brazil, indicating that one dispersal event was primary. Migration from Siberia to Chile occurred by 13, years ago, thus some believe that initial dispersal must have been at least 20, years ago.
The Y chromosome data suggest colonization did not precede 18, years ago. Archaeological visibility improves with the Clovis phenomenon, suggesting either that more humans arrived or that their behavioral strategies became more likely to leave traces in the archaeological record. Norton and Company, Inc. Norton Home Help Credits. The Human Past 3e.
Chapter 4 The Rise of Modern Humans. Learn explain thermoluminescence dating with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of explain thermoluminescence dating flashcards on. Start studying Archaeology Ch 8: Dating. Learn vocabulary, terms, and (ex: dendrochronography and radiocarbon dating). Thermoluminescence dating quizlet login. The study of layers of.
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New thought will survey briefly the radioactive the material by using the last has thermoluminescence dating quizlet. The Aurignacian ended around 28, years ago across Europe, and was succeeded by the Gravettian technocomplex after La Gravette, France: Research now centers on how many dispersal events occurred; how these are reflected in modern human genetics; whether language origin was crucial to the process; and whether modern behavior emerged gradually or suddenly.
This "zeroing" is the basis for thermoluminescence dating of ceramics which are made of small grains of clay and other minerals such as quartz and feldspars , as the accumulation of thermoluminescence is set to zero when the object is fired. Neanderthals also worked wood, antler, and bone.
Ocher fragments, pigments, and shells are found at several sites, but there is no convincing art.
Chapter Summary and Key Concepts
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