As I researched and thought about what to say and include in this article, I was amazed to discover that just about every medical textbook that I reviewed had at least some information about sexual dysfunction, whether neurology, psychiatry, orthopedics, neuropsychology, or other areas, somewhere in each book there was some discussion about relationships between trauma, medications, emotions, injury, or something to sexual dysfunction.
I decided to include this section with just quotes from the medical literature not, in any way, to try and teach the medical substance of the quotes, but rather, for the purpose of making the reader aware of how extensively this topic is discussed in some of the very same medical books that may well be on your doctors' shelves.
This knowledge may help people feel a little more comfortable about discussing issues of sexual dysfunction with a doctor. It is also important to remember that there are physicians, specialists, and health care providers who specialize in working with people with sexual dysfunction and people have the right to request such referrals.
At pagethe chapter is entitled "Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunction. Human sexuality conceptually embraces the composite of those factors that result in our capacity to love and procreate. A related of sexuality is the Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by perception and expression of "womanliness" or "manliness. Sexual disabilities may include disturbances of any of the component functions of sexuality: Disabilities resulting from physical or organic factors as primary dysfunction, and secondary sexual dysfunctions resulting from brain trauma are those disturbances of psychosocial abilities or sexual responses due to the mental deficits in psychologic reactions consequent to the injury.
Secondary sexual dysfunctions may arise in the partner, if one exists, as the consequences of reactions to the disabled person and the altered life situation.
Current evidence indicates that secondary factors account for the great majority of sexual dysfunctions in brain injured subjects. However, more recent data suggest that primary factors may be less rare than previously surmised. In contrast to the growing body of general information on psychosocial aspects of brain trauma, very little has been written about sexuality. Sexual responses - erection, vaginal lubrication, ejaculation, orgasm, and fertility - are not altered as a direct consequence of brain injury unless the hypothalamic-pituitary function has been disturbed or disrupted.
The resulting endocrinopathies have received increasing attention, with recognition that testicular and ovarian hypofunction can occur. Some women with mesial temporal lobe foci of seizures have recently been reported to have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Women often become temporarily amenorrheic following severe trauma, but menses should ordinarily resume within 4 to 6 months.
Persistent amenorrhea should alert the clinician to the possibility of pituitary dysfunction. Similarly, men frequently have transient impotence, but the ability to achieve an erection should reappear after several months.
Trauma to the craniofacial area, primary or secondary sexual organs, and orthopedic injuries resulting in amputation, contractures, deformities, and chronic pain are potential sources of dysfunction. Abdominal or pelvic vascular injuries can compromise circulation to the genitalia, producing impotence or other alterations in sexual responses.
Recurrent medical complications, sustained bed rest, and inactivity with its many consequences cause deconditioning and other effects that impinge upon sexual activity. A multitude of drugs produce side effects that influence sexual acts and responses. Finally, pre-existing disorders may become additive factors contributing to the primary sexual dysfunction. Cardiac, vascular, pulmonary, or other types of diseases may already have compromised sexual function of the elderly before injury.
The normal pattern of sexual behavior in both male and female may be altered Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by cerebral disease quite apart from impairment due to obvious physical disability or to diseases that destroy or isolate the segmental reflex mechanisms.
Hypersexuality in men or women is a rare but complication of neurologic disease. Kleist pointed out that lesions of the orbital Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by of the frontal lobes may remove moral-ethical restraints and lead to indiscriminate sexual behavior, and that superior frontal lesions may be associated with a general loss of initiative which reduces all impulsivity, including sexual.
In our clinical work we find that hyposexuality, meaning loss of libido, is most often due to a
Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by illness. Certain chemical agents - notably antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, serotoninergic antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs - may cause a loss of libido. A variety of cerebral diseases may also have this effect. Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by function in the male, which is not infrequently affected in neurologic disease, may be divided into several parts: The arousal of "Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by" in men and women may result from a variety of stimuli, some purely imaginary.
Such neocortical influences are transmitted to the limbic system and thence to the hypothalamus and spinal centers. The difference aspects of sexual function may be affected separately.
Loss of libido Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by depend upon both psychic and somatic factors. It may be complete, as in old age or in medical and endocrine diseases, or it may occur only in certain circumstances or in relation to a certain situation or individual.
The commonest cause of impotence is a depressive state. Innervation of the organs of sexuality is mediated primarily through the autonomic nervous system. It is generally assumed that the parasympathetic system activates the process of erection via impulses that pass through the pelvic splanchnic nerves S2, S3, S4 which caused the smooth muscles of the penile arteries to dilate.
Recent evidence implicates the sympathetic adrenergic system as being responsible for ejaculation. In women, the sympathic system facilitates smooth muscle contraction of the vagina, urethra, and uterus that occurs during orgasm. The autonomic nervous system outside of voluntary control and is influenced by external events for example, stress, drugs and internal events hypothalamic, limbic, and cortical stimuli.
It is not surprising, therefore, that erection and orgasm are so vulnerable to dysfunction. Experimentation with animals has demonstrated that the limbic system is directly involved with elements of sexual functioning. In all mammals the limbic Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by is involved in behavior required for self-preservation and the preservation of the species.
A vast array of neurotransmitters are produced by the brain. They include dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine,
Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by serotonin. All have effects on sexual function. For example, an increase in dopamine is presumed to increase libido. Serotonin produced in the upper pons and mid-brain is presumed to have an inhibitory effect on sexual function.
The sexual cycle is divided into four phases: The essential feature of the sexual dysfunctions is inhibition in one or more of the phases, including disturbance in the subjective sense of pleasure or desire or disturbance in the objective performance. Either type of disturbance can occur alone or in combination.
Sexual dysfunctions are so diagnosed only when such disturbances are a major part of the clinical feature. They can be lifelong or acquired, generalized or situational, and due to psychological Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by or Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by to combined factors. If they are attributable entirely to a general medical condition, substance use, or adverse effects of medication, then sexual dysfunction due to a general medical condition or substance-induced sexual dysfunction is diagnosed.
With the possible exception of premature ejaculation, sexual dysfunctions rarely are found separate from other psychiatric syndromes. Sexual disorders
Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by lead to or result from relational problems, and patients invariably develop an increasing fear of failure and self-consciousness about their sexual performance. Sexual dysfunctions are frequently associated with other mental disorders, such as depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and schizophrenia.
In many instances, sexual dysfunctions may be diagnosed in conjunction with the other psychiatric disorders. In some cases, however, it is but one of many signs or symptoms of the psychiatric disorder.
A sexual disorder can be symptomatic of biological problems, intrapsychic conflicts, interpersonal difficulties, or a combination of these factors. The sexual function can be affected by stress of any kind, by emotional disorders, and by a lack of sexual knowledge. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is experienced by both men and women; however, they may not be hampered by any dysfunction once they are involved in the sex act. Conversely, hypoactive desire may be used to mask another sexual dysfunction.
Lack of desire may be expressed by decreased frequency of coitus, perception of the partner as unattractive, or overt complaints of lack of desire. In some cases there "Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by" biochemical correlates associated with hypoactive desire. A recent study found markedly decreased levels of serum testosterone in men complaining of this dysfunction when they were compared with normal controls in a sleep-laboratory situation.
Also, a central dopamine blockage is known to decrease desire. Patients with desire problems often have good ego strengths and use inhibition of desire in a defensive way to protect against unconscious fears about sex. Lack of desire can also be the result of chronic stress, anxiety, or depression. Abstinence from sex for a prolonged period sometimes results in suppression of the sexual impulse. It may also be an expression of hostility or the sign of a deteriorating relationship.
The presence of desire depends on several factors: Damage to any of those factors may result in diminished desire. Male erectile disorder is also called erectile dysfunction and impotence. In acquired male erectile disorder the man has successfully achieved vaginal penetration at some time in his sexual life but is later unable to do so. The percentage of all men treated for sexual disorders who have impotence as the chief complaint ranges from 35 to 50 percent.
The incidence of psychological as opposed to organic impotence has been the focus of many recent studies. Physiologically, impotence may be due to a variety of medical causes. In the United States it is estimated that two million men are impotent because they suffer from diabetes mellitus; an additionalare impotent because of other endocrine diseases; 1.
In addition, the clinician should be aware of the possible pharmacological Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by of medication on sexual functioning. The increased incidence of organic etiologies for this dysfunction in the past 15 "Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by" may, in part, reflect the increased use of psychotropic and antihypertensive medications.
Statistics indicate that 20 to 50 percent of men with erectile dysfunction have a medical basis for their problem. Sexual dysfunction due to a general medical condition. The category covers sexual dysfunction that results in marked distress and interpersonal difficulty when there is evidence from the history, the physical examination, or the laboratory findings of a general medical condition judged to be causally related to the sexual dysfunction.
Male erectile disorder due to a general medical condition. The incidence of psychological as opposed to organic male erectile disorder has been the focus of many studies. Statistics indicate that 20 to 50 percent of men with erectile disorder have an organic basis for the disorder. The medical causes of male erectile disorder are listed in Table Castration does not always lead to sexual dysfunction, depending on the person.
Erection may still occur after castration. A number of procedures, benign and invasive, are used to help differentiate medically caused impotence from psychogenic impotence.
The procedures include monitoring nocturnal penile tumescence erections that occur during sleepnormally associated with rapid eye movement; monitoring tumescence with strain gauge; measuring blood pressure in the penis with a penile plethysmograph or an ultrasound Doppler flow meter, both of which assess blood flow in the internal pudendal artery; and measuring pudendal nerve latency time.
Neurological impairment of penile function may be indicated if vibratory perception is increased in the penis. Other diagnostic tests that delineate organic bases for impotence include glucose tolerance tests, plasma hormone assays, liver and thyroid function tests, prolactin and follicle-stimulating hormone FSH determinations, and cystometric examinations.
Invasive diagnostic studies include penile arteriography, infusion cavernosography, and radioactive xenon penography. Invasive procedures require expert interpretation and are used only for patients who are candidates for vascular reconstructive procedures. Hypoactive Desire Disorder- a lack or absence of sexual and desire for sexual.
-Situational- you have a sexual dysfunction in only certain situations Fear/pain/ anxiety (this things are all grouped together now). Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic condition estimated to affect 1 –3% of the phenomena) and sexual dysfunction associated with pharmacological treatment of OCD. some of the previous studies Sexual dysfunction disorders are grouped by grouped sexual.
Sexual disorder treatment at Priory Group. Treatment programmes to address physical, psychological and emotional issues leading to sexual difficulties.