March 21, ; Accepted Date: May 17, ; Published Date: J Phylogen Evolution Biol 4: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction "Capital de guainia yahoo dating" any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris is the largest rodent on the world and it is strongly linked to Capital de guainia yahoo dating river systems of a large fraction of South America and part of Central America Panama. Thus, it is an interesting species to test hypotheses about the origin of the high biodiversity within the Amazon Basin and in Capital de guainia yahoo dating sizeable fraction of the Neotropics.
To test these hypotheses, we sequenced two mitochondrial genes control region and Cytochrome b of 78 wild capybaras sampled in Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil.
However, our results do not support the more recent view that two different species of capybara are present H. A Bayesian tree with the aforementioned two mitochondrial genes, and another Bayesian tree with a subset of 25 capybaras for 10 mitochondrial genesshowed that the initial diversification of the mitochondrial haplotype in capybaras was initiated in the Late Miocene.
The trees also showed that the other haplotype diversification processes extended into the Pliocene and Pleistocene. We also detected population expansion events during different moments of the Pleistocene.
Although some authors strongly suggest that the Miocene diversification explains the extreme biodiversity in the Amazon Basin and in surroundings areas for instance, the Paleogeography hypothesisothers consider it the result of available forest refugia Refuge hypothesis during the Pleistocene.
However, our results suggest that both hypotheses and others, such as the Riverrefuge, the Recent Lagoon and the Hydrogeological Recent Change hypotheses could have affected the evolution of the capybara to generate the current mitochondrial diversity.
Thus, it is difficult to generalize a unique Amazon biota diversification hypothesis Capital de guainia yahoo dating each species or taxon could be affected by different processes and because the temporal antiquity of each taxon in South America is also different.
Older taxa within this continent could have begun their current genetics diversification processes earlier, such as in the case of the capybara.
Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris ; mitochondrial genes; Amazon biodiversity; Paleogeography; Riverine-refuge; Hydrogeological Recent Change; Recent lagoon and Refugia hypotheses; Bayesian analyses. The great and amazing biodiversity, at all organismic levels, of the Amazon Basin has been a "Capital de guainia yahoo dating," which has drawn the attention of numerous naturalists since the 19th Capital de guainia yahoo dating. To help explain
Capital de guainia yahoo dating noteworthy diversity, a series of hypotheses have been proposed.
Excellent reviews on the question can be found in the literature [ 1 - 12 ]. Eleven different hypotheses on the origin of the Amazonian biodiversity tested throughout molecular population genetics in the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris.
On average, adult capybaras reach a body length of However, their weight has a clinal distribution, with smaller values kg to the north Colombian and Venezuelan Llanos and larger values up to 91 kg to the south Southern Brazil and Argentina [ 1314 ]. This is a semi-aquatic species tightly linked to Neotropical rivers and flooded savannas, with water and temperature the main factors in its distribution.
The maximum altitude registered for this species is around 1, meters above sea level. Capybara is a very interesting species to test some of these Amazon and Neotropical biodiversity hypotheses because it inhabits the basins of the main South American rivers: It is closely related with the genera Neocherus and Hydrochoeropsis Upper Pliocene to Recent; [ 16 ]. All the known fossil records of capybara are from the Pleistocene in Curacao, Uruguay, Argentina, Colombia and Bolivia which suggests that only Pleistocene biodiversity hypotheses are germane to mitochondrial diversification in capybara.
A trans-Andean population extends from middle Panama from the Panama channel to the Darien forests
Capital de guainia yahoo dating Northern and Pacific Colombia Atlantic area, lower valleys of the Sinu, Atrato and Cauca rivers, lower and middle valleys of the Magdalena and Cesar rivers and some populations on the Pacific coast, Choco and Valle Departments and Northeastern Venezuela around Maracaibo Lake.
The first population was traditionally considered as a differentiated sub-species H. However, Goldman [ 17 ] claimed that the Panama population could be a different species H. The individuals of this population have a lower weight kg
Capital de guainia yahoo dating 18 ] and a shorter gestation period days compared to days for the other capybara population; [ 19 ]. Wilson and Reeder [ 20 ] recognized both species on the basis that H.
Mitochondrial markers have been Capital de guainia yahoo dating in a large variety of studies with mammals to resolve evolutionary significant units, taxonomic conflicts, and to determine phylogeographic patterns and biogeographic history [ 21 - 26 ].
The control region of mt DNA D-loop is a portion that evolves particularly rapidly and thus allows fine-scale resolution of population structure and micro-evolutionary divisions [ 2728 ]. The mt Cytochrome b gene Cyt-b contains both slowly and rapidly evolving codon positions, as well as conservative and variable regions; it constitutes a suitable marker for phylogenetic purposes at various divergence levels [ 29 ].
A subset 25 specimens of the overall sample analyzed 78 specimens and sequenced at the mt Capital de guainia yahoo dating region and mt Cyt-b, was also sequenced at other 10 mitochondrial genes.
The main aim of this work are as follows: The geographical distribution of the 78 capybara samples analyzed was as follows: Map of South America with the areas and number of samples obtained for the 78 capybara sequenced at the mitochondrial control region D-loop and Cyt-b. PCR reactions were carried out in a BioRad thermocycler. The amplified samples were purified using membrane-binding spin columns Qiagen. The samples were sequenced in both directions using the BigDye TM kit and all the samples were repeated to ensure sequence accuracy.
The sequence length for Cyt-b was 1, base pairs bp and bp for D-loop a total of 1, bp.
A subset of the samples analyzed were sequenced for other additional mitochondrial genes. These genes were selected because we are doing a mitogenomics project with different mammals. Many mitogenomic analyses have shown to be extremely useful in determining phylogenetic relationships and in estimating divergence times in many different groups of organisms, such as birds [ 3435 ] and mammals [ 36 - 45 ].
Mitochondrial gene trees are more precise Capital de guainia yahoo dating reconstructing the divergence history among species than other molecular markers [ 46 ].
Additionally, many of the samples we analyzed hairs could provide a good amount of mitochondrial DNA but not of nuclear DNA. The sequences were concatenated by means of Capital de guainia yahoo dating SequenceMatrix v. Overlapping regions were examined for irregularities, such as frameshift mutations and premature stop codons. The lack of such irregularities agrees quite well with the absence of numt sequences in our mitochondrial sequences.
The Modeltest [ 50 ] and the Mega 6. We used the Ln L criteria. These four geographical haplogroups were determined by the phylogenetic analyses. In some analyses, only three geographic regions were employed due to the small sample size of the Napo River.
These gene diversity statistics were carried out with the DNAsp 5. We estimated the possible historical female effective population numbers among the capybara populations studied-using the Migrate 3. The first average value was obtained from different studies with different mammalian species [ 58 - 66 ]. The second average value was estimated from other different studies but also with mammals [ 67 - 71 ].
Two strategies were used to calculate the effective female population size and gene flow estimates. For the first strategy, we used a maximum likelihood procedure [ 72 - 74 ] with 10 short Markov chains, with recorded steps, increments and a total of 50, sampled genealogies with a burn-in number of discard trees per chain of 10, and one long Markov chain, with 5, recorded steps, increments and a total ofsampled genealogies with a burn-in of 10, The second strategy was a Bayesian procedure [ 7475 ] with one long Markov chain, with 5, recorded steps, increments, one concurrent chain and a total ofsampled genealogies with a burn-in of 10, This analysis is interesting to carry out because the populations with the highest historically effective female
Capital de guainia yahoo dating are probably the original ones.
We used several methods to determine possible demographic Capital de guainia yahoo dating across the natural history of the capybara: The Capital de guainia yahoo dating rg statistic [ 7879 ] was used to determine the similarity between the observed and the theoretical curves. This procedure let us estimate th76e time of the beginning of a demographic change Capital de guainia yahoo dating the initial and the final population sizes [ 76 ].
All of these statistics and tests were obtained by means of the DNAsp 5. The Coalescent-Bayesian skyline option in the tree priors was selected with five steps and a piecewise-constant skyline model with 40, generations the first 4, discarded as burn-in. In the Tracer v1. Two phylogenetic trees were obtained. We concatenated both genes because we carried out two analyses which showed that both trees with each individual gene showed the same topology.
First, we undertake a likelihood ratio test LRT; [ 88 ]. We performed this test separately for mt Cyt-b and mt D-loop and for combined both mitochondrial genes. The last case showed similar likelihood to the individual likelihood of each separated tree.
The MP with mt Cyt-b gene was employed for generating replicate data sets in the Seq-Gen 1. The differences between the log likelihood of the mt Cyt-b gene tree and the other trees herein obtained were compared with the distribution of the differences between each parametric replicate and the mt Cyt-b gene tree.
As there were not significant differences among all these trees, we decided to concatenate the sequences of both mitochondrial genes. Two separate sets of analyses were run, assuming a Yule speciation model and a relaxed molecular clock with an uncorrelated log-normal rate of distribution [ 94 ]. Results from the two independent runs 60, generations with the first 6, discarded as burn in and parameter values sampled every 1, generations were combined with v1.
The effective sample size ESS for the parameter estimates and convergence were checked using Tracer version 1.
Capital de guainia yahoo dating probability values provide an assessment of the degree of support of each node on the tree. The final tree was estimated using the TreeAnnotator v1. Additionally, this program was run to estimate the time to most recent common ancestor TMRCA for the different haplotype lineages found.
We used the value of This value was based on an estimated split between the ancestor of the capybaras and Kerodon to have occurred MYA [ 95 - 97 ]. Another prior included the split of the ancestors of paca and capybara The second tree was also a Bayesian one with a subset of samples sequenced for another 10 concatenated mitochondrial genes. All the conditions and priors were the same as in the previous tree.
To estimate possible divergence times among the haplotypes found in the capybara studied, a Median Joining Network MJ [ 98 ] was constructed by means of the Network 4.
We used two different mutation rates for this task. The first was that employed in the previous analysis for obtaining the effective female size 2. This translates into one mutation every Capital de guainia yahoo dating, and around 30, years, respectively.
Out of seven genetic heterogeneity tests, seven were significant and the gene estimates Nm were very low around 0. Table 3 shows the FST values for all the population pairs. All them were highly significant, being the highest value that for Western "Capital de guainia yahoo dating" vs. Therefore, significant amounts of genetic heterogeneity were found among capybara populations from diverse geographical areas throughout Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Peru.
A fraction of this genetic heterogeneity is related with the geographic distance among the populations considered. Four regression models genetic distances vs. The geographic distance explained 1 – Emergencia por inundaciones en el departamento de Guainía. Este flash update reporta la situación hasta "Capital de guainia yahoo dating," por la falta de acceso a. Main · Videos; Mahngericht hagen online dating kolkata movie majnu online dating · capital de guainia yahoo dating · shearly dating ring website · lds dating.
(Col) E-mail: [email protected] Date of birth: Capital de guainia yahoo dating February, Passport: Sikuani Indians teachers in Guainía – Colombia.