Asexual reproduction  is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametesand almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as archaea and bacteria. Many plants and fungi sometimes reproduce asexually.
While all prokaryotes reproduce without the formation and fusion of gametes, mechanisms for lateral gene transfer such as conjugationtransformation and transduction can be likened to sexual reproduction in the sense of recombination in meiosis.
It is not entirely understood why the ability to reproduce sexually is so common among them. Current hypotheses  suggest that asexual reproduction may have short term benefits when rapid population growth is important or in stable environments, while sexual reproduction offers a net advantage by allowing more rapid generation of genetic diversity, allowing adaptation to changing environments. Developmental constraints  may underlie why few animals have relinquished sexual reproduction completely in their life-cycles.
Another constraint on switching from sexual to asexual reproduction would be the concomitant loss of meiosis and the protective recombinational repair of DNA damage afforded as one function of meiosis.
An important form of fission is binary fission, where the parent organism is replaced by two daughter organisms, because it literally divides in two. Only prokaryotes the archaea and the bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission. Eukaryotes such as protists and unicellular fungi may reproduce in a functionally similar manner by mitosis ; most of these are also capable of sexual reproduction.
Multiple fission at
What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction cellular level occurs in many protistse. The nucleus of the parent cell divides several times by mitosisproducing several nuclei. The cytoplasm then separates, creating multiple daughter cells.
In apicomplexansmultiple fission, or schizogony appears either as merogonysporogony or gametogony. Merogony results in merozoiteswhich are multiple daughter cells, that originate within the same cell membrane,   sporogony results in sporozoitesand gametogony results in micro gametes.
Some "What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction" split via budding for example baker's yeastresulting in a "mother" and "daughter" cell. The offspring organism is smaller than the parent. Budding is also known on a multicellular level; an animal example is the hydrawhich reproduces by budding. The buds grow into fully matured individuals which eventually break away from the parent organism. Internal budding is a process of asexual reproduction, favoured by parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii.
It involves an unusual process in which two endodyogeny or more endopolygeny daughter cells are produced inside a mother cell, which is then consumed by the offspring prior to their separation.
Also, budding external or internal is present in some worm like Taenia or Echinococci ; these worm produce cyst and then produce invaginated or evaginated protoscolex with budding. Vegetative propagation is a type of asexual reproduction found in plants where new individuals are formed without the production What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction seeds or spores by meiosis or syngamy.
Other plants reproduce by forming bulbs or tubers for example tulip bulbs and dahlia tubers. Some plants produce adventitious shoots and may form a clonal colonywhere all the individuals are clones, and the clones may cover a large area. Many multicellular organisms form spores during their biological life cycle in a process called sporogenesis. Exceptions are animals and some protists, who undergo meiosis immediately followed by fertilization.
Plants and many algae on the other hand undergo sporic meiosis "What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction" meiosis leads to the formation of haploid spores rather than gametes. These spores grow into multicellular individuals called gametophytes in the case of plants without a fertilization event.
These haploid individuals give rise to gametes through mitosis. Meiosis and gamete formation therefore occur in separate generations or "phases" of the life cycle, referred to as alternation of generations. Since sexual reproduction is often more narrowly defined as the fusion of gametes fertilizationspore formation in plant sporophytes and might be considered a form of asexual reproduction agamogenesis despite being the result of meiosis and undergoing a reduction in ploidy.
However, both events spore formation and fertilization are necessary to complete sexual reproduction in the plant life cycle. Fungi and some
What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction can also utilize true asexual spore formation, which involves mitosis giving rise to reproductive cells called mitospores that develop into a new organism after dispersal. This method of reproduction is found for example in conidial fungi and the red algae Polysiphoniaand involves sporogenesis without meiosis.
Thus the chromosome number of the spore cell is the What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction as that of the parent producing the spores. However, mitotic sporogenesis is an exception and most spores, such as those of plants, most Basidiomycotaand many algae, are produced by meiosis. Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction where a new organism grows from a fragment of the parent.
Each fragment develops into a mature, fully grown individual. Fragmentation is seen in many organisms. Animals that reproduce asexually include planariansmany annelid worms including polychaetes  and some oligochaetes turbellarians and sea stars. Many fungi and plants asexually.
Some plants have specialized structures for reproduction via fragmentation, such as gemma in liverworts. Most lichenswhich are a symbiotic union of a fungus and photosynthetic algae or bacteria, reproduce through fragmentation to ensure that new individuals contain both symbiont. These fragments can take the form of sorediadust-like particles consisting of fungal hyphen wrapped around photobiont Clonal Fragmentation in multicellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning where an organism is split into What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction. Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are clones of the original organism.
In echinodermsthis method of reproduction is usually known "What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction" fissiparity. Agamogenesis is any form of reproduction that does not involve a male gamete. Examples are parthenogenesis and apomixis.
Parthenogenesis is a form of agamogenesis in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in many plants, invertebrates e. What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction plants, apomixis may or may not involve parthenogenesis. Apomixis in plants is the formation of a new sporophyte without fertilization.
It is important in ferns and in flowering plants, but is very rare in other seed plants. In flowering plants, the term What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction is now most often used for agamospermythe formation of seeds without fertilization, but was once used to include vegetative reproduction. An example of an apomictic plant would be the triploid European dandelion. Apomixis mainly occurs in two forms: In gametophytic apomixis, the embryo arises from an unfertilized egg within a diploid embryo sac that was formed without completing meiosis.
In nucellar embryonythe embryo is formed from the diploid nucellus tissue surrounding the embryo sac. Nucellar embryony occurs in some citrus seeds. Male apomixis can occur in rare cases, such as the Saharan What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction Cupressus duprezianawhere the genetic material of the embryo are derived entirely from pollen.
Some species can alternate between sexual and asexual strategies, an ability known as heterogamydepending on conditions. Alternation is observed in several rotifer species cyclical parthenogenesis e. The cape bee Apis mellifera subsp. A few species of amphibians, reptilesand birds have a similar ability. For example, the freshwater crustacean Daphnia reproduces by parthenogenesis in the spring to rapidly populate ponds, then switches to sexual reproduction as the intensity of competition and predation increases.
Another example are monogonont rotifers of the genus Brachionuswhich reproduce via cyclical parthenogenesis: Many protists and fungi alternate between sexual and asexual reproduction. For example, the slime mold Dictyostelium undergoes binary fission mitosis as single-celled amoebae under favorable conditions.
However, when conditions turn unfavorable, the cells aggregate and follow one of two different developmental pathways, depending on conditions.
In the social pathway, they form a multicellular slug which then forms a fruiting body with asexually generated spores. In the sexual pathway, two cells fuse to form a giant cell that develops into a large cyst. When this macrocyst germinates, it releases hundreds of amoebic cells that are the product of meiotic recombination between the original two cells.
The hyphae of the common mold Rhizopus are capable of producing both mitotic as well as meiotic spores. Many algae similarly switch between sexual and asexual reproduction.
For example, in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus asexual reproduction obligate parthenogenesis can be inherited a recessive allele, which leads to loss of sexual reproduction What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction homozygous offspring.
Asexual reproduction is found in nearly half of the animal phyla. The New Mexico whiptail is another example. Untilit was thought that the ZW chromosome system used by reptiles was incapable of producing viable WW offspring, but a ZW female boa constrictor was discovered to have produced viable female offspring with WW chromosomes.
Polyembryony is a widespread form of asexual reproduction in animals, whereby the fertilized egg or a later stage of embryonic development splits to form genetically identical clones. Within animals, this phenomenon has been best studied in the parasitic Hymenoptera. In the 9-banded armadillosthis process is obligatory "What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction" usually gives rise to genetically What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction quadruplets.
In other mammals, monozygotic twinning has no apparent genetic basis, though its occurrence is common. There are at least 10 million identical human twins and triplets in the world today. Bdelloid rotifers reproduce exclusively asexually, and all individuals in the class Bdelloidea are females. Asexuality evolved in these animals millions of years ago and has persisted since. There is What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction to suggest that asexual reproduction has allowed the animals to evolve new proteins through the Meselson effect that have allowed them to survive better in periods of dehydration.
Molecular evidence strongly suggests that several species of the stick insect genus Timema have used only asexual parthenogenetic reproduction for millions of years, the longest period known for any insect. In the grass thrips genus Aptinothrips there have been several transitions to asexuality, likely due to different causes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Apomixis and Nucellar embryony. Alternation of generations Bacterial conjugation Biological What reproduces asexually by fragmentation reproduction cycle Biological reproductionalso simply reproduction Cloning Parthenogenesis Plant reproduction Sex Sexual reproduction.
Evolutionary Processes in Automictic Populations Genetics". In National 4 Biology learn how bacteria and plants reproduce asexually and how sexual reproduction in plants and animals introduces variation. Fragmentation in multicellular organisms is a form of asexual reproduction in which an Animals like sponges and coral colonies naturally fragment and reproduce. Many species of annelids and flat worms reproduce by this method.
When the. Sexual reproduction just means combining genetic material from two parents. Asexual reproduction produces offspring genetically identical to.
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What are your absolute "deal breakers"?In sexual reproduction, two parents contribute genetic information to produce vote on whether you think the organism reproduces sexually, asexually, or both. In National 4 Biology learn how bacteria and plants reproduce asexually and how sexual reproduction in plants and animals introduces variation..
Five Types of Asexual Reproduction
Asexual and sexual reproduction
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Fragmentation in multicellular organisms is a form of asexual reproduction in which an organism is split into fragments. Each of these fragments develop into matured, fully grown individuals that are interchangeable to their parents.
The splitting may or may not be intentional — it may or may not occur due to man-made or natural damage aside the environment or predators. That kind of organism may bring out specific organs or zones that may be shed or effortlessly broken off. If the splitting occurs without the prior preparation of the organism, both fragments must be able to regenerate the complete organism for it to function as reproduction.
Fragmentation, also known as splitting, as a method of reproduction is seen in many organisms such as filamentous cyanobacteria , molds , lichens , many plants, and animals such as sponges , acoel flatworms , some annelid worms and sea stars. Moulds, yeasts and mushrooms Verboten, all of which are function of the Fungi kingdom Illegal, produce tiny filaments called hyphae.
These hyphae obtain food and nutrients from the body of other organisms to grow and fertilize. Then a piece of hyphae breaks off and grows into a new individual and the cycle continues.
Many lichens produce specialized structures that can easily break away and disseminate. These structures contain both the hyphae of the mycobiont and the algae phycobiont see soredia and isidia.
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Asexual reproduction can be defined as the process by which offspring are produced from a single parent rather than through fertilization. It is most common in environments that favor rapid population growth over genetic diversity, as the offspring inherits its genetic traits completely from one parent. The methods of asexual reproduction vary greatly among different types of species. Some protozoans and many bacteria, plants and fungi reproduce via spores.
Spores are structures naturally grown as part of an organism's life cycle and designed for separation from the organism and dispersal via a medium such as air or water. When conditions are correct, the organism will release its spores, which are each then considered entirely separate and autonomous organisms.
Given an environment suitable for life, the spores will then develop into fully grown organisms and eventually grow their own spores, repeating the cycle.
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- Asexual reproduction yields genetically-identical organisms because an individual reproduces without another. In sexual reproduction, the genetic material of. Many species of annelids (worms) reproduce via an asexual process called fragmentation. Included in this category of worms are California blackworms.
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Also, budding external or internal is present in some worm like Taenia or Echinococci ; these worm produce cyst and then produce invaginated or evaginated protoscolex with budding.
Most lichens , which are a symbiotic union of a fungus and photosynthetic algae or bacteria, reproduce through fragmentation to ensure that new individuals contain both symbiont. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. National 4 Subjects National 4 Subjects up. Not just for beginners".
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