March 25, ; Accepted Date: April 28, ; Published Date: This is an Asexual propagation introduction to computers article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Horticulture. Clonal ; Asexual propagation; Division; Separation; Specialized organs.
Plants are the most fundamentally important things given to life exist on this world by providing the basic and immediate needs of humans for food and shelter as well as acting as an essential component of the biosphere for maintaining life on the planet that evolved to survive, thrive, and grow by adapting to ever-changing conditions [ 1 ]. From plant species found on the land surface, a higher plant species occupy a wide variety of habitats over the other species [ 2 ].
This can happen by different reproduction methods viz. A vegetative reproduction is the process of multiplication in which a portion of fragment of the plant body functions as propagules and develops into a new individual plant which involves the production of new plants without the act of fertilization or sexual union. Further can be said that, vegetative propagation of plant is a of plant propagation in which the new individual plant arises from any vegetative part of the parents root, stem, leaf and other organsand possesses exactly the same characteristics of "Asexual propagation introduction to computers" parent plant from which it was obtained.
According to Agrios [ 4 ], clonally propagated plants are categorized as those cultivated for vegetative product and those cultivated for a fruit or reproductive product that mostly practiced in fruit trees propagation. In higher plants, any part of the body may be capable of vegetative propagation. Many plants produce modified stems, roots, and leaves, especially for natural vegetative propagation.
The most commonly known vegetative propagation of plant includes propagation by cuttings, which is obtained either from stem, leaf, root, by layering, by grafting, Asexual propagation introduction to computers modified specialized organ or by micro propagation methods.
But, In case of lower plants, propagation occurs through binary fissionbudding, fragmentationgemmae, resting buds and "Asexual propagation introduction to computers" in lichens. All these methods of plant propagation by vegetative organ occur naturally but at the same time, man too has developed various methods of artificial vegetative propagation for many useful plants which are widely used in the horticultural industry. To do this, a Knowledge and skills of identification of plant organs which has to use for plant propagation is paramount important for horticulturalist in order to multiply as per requirements.
Therefore aim of this review paper is to discuss the propagation methods of selected horticultural crops by specialized organs. In order to continue life on this planet, plants are the basic and immediate needs of the living things including of human beings. Among the existed plant species, the higher plant has occupied wide habitats than the others.
These plants reproduce to perpetuate their off springs by sexual and asexual "Asexual propagation introduction to computers" of reproduction. The Sexual reproduction method produces offspring by the fusion of gametes, resulting in offspring genetically different from the parent plants due to genetic exchange occur during fertilization which came from both parents.
The plant is composed of four primary organs viz. The
Asexual propagation introduction to computers commonly utilized form of plant reproduction by people is seeds. But, a number of asexual methods including cuttings, grafting, buddinglayering, division, separation and micro propagations are utilized when seed propagation is not "Asexual propagation introduction to computers." Also an asexual methods of plant propagation are important to multiply cultivars with individual desirable characteristics that do not come to true from the seeds, to ensures the faster initial plant growth and higher survival of the plant, to produce higher yield with quality product, to reproduce plants which have a short life span and seed dormancy and to propagate a plants which are sterile to reproduce by seeds [ 5 ].
Early clearly elaborated the role of vegetative propagated crops that almost all of the plants sold as perennials, bulbs, corms, trees and shrubs are vegetative propagated because most of them are hybrids which will not breed true to type from seeds.
In many plant organs modifications are exist to enable natural vegetative propagations. Of these, the stem is the most important one which produces a bud that completely grow to new plant with roots, stems and leaves.
These Asexual propagation introduction to computers foods enable to quickly burst growth of plants in the spring e. According to McKey et al. Different parts of clonally propagated plants have been selected to provide food and clonal propageules such as stems, roots, leaves, fruits, under or above ground specialized storage organs and even seeds. The specialized vegetative structures includes runners, suckers, crown, offsets, bulbs, corms, tubers, tuberous roots, rhizomes and pseudo bulbs are used primarily for the storage of foods, nutrients and water during adverse environmental conditions and for propageules [ 8 ].
Plants possessing these modified
Asexual propagation introduction to computers parts are generally herbaceous perennials, in which the shoots die down at the end of a growing season but the fleshy vegetative structure usually do not die and remains in the soil, which put forth new vegetative growth in the next season [ 9 ].
Plants that survive as underground storage organs are called genotypes that can withstand period of adverse growing conditions in their regular growth cycles and used as propageules. For instance, potato tubers are modified stems that store starch in swollen underground structures known as tubers which serve as Asexual propagation introduction to computers seed for raising commercial potato Crops.
Asexual propagation introduction to computers horticultural crops propagated by specialized organs either dividing them or separating from their mother plants in order to get Asexual propagation introduction to computers planting materials.
Propagation by division is a form of plant propagation in which a group of plants or plant parts are cut or torn apart which each part of the divided plant contains one or more of the roots of the plant and a part of the stem of one or more stems.
Division is probably the simplest form of plant propagation which is suitable for most clumps and rosette forming perennials [ 6 ]. Most perennial plants benefited from division as they get older and begin to lose their vigor. It involves little more than breaking up established clumps in to a number of smaller pieces. The only complications come in knowing just when to divide and establishing a minimum size for the divisions.
The success rate of plant rose from division is very high compared to the other propagation methods. Plants that have fibrous, rhizomatous roots, and plants that form clumps or crowns, are typically split up for propagation in to new plants. The dividing line between fibrous rooted perennials, crown rhizome perennials and rhizomes are somewhat indistinct.
Rhizomes are purely underground stems and separated from the crown of roots around the base of the plant [ 6 ]. He also suggested that, plants suitable for division can be put in to three categories. Firstly, plants that form clumps of rosettes or offsets which can simply be cut up or broken apart in to rooted pieces and immediately regarded as new plants. This sort of "Asexual propagation introduction to computers" can in most cases be done any time Asexual propagation introduction to computers the year.
Many of these types of plants will also produce runners or offsets which can be separated from the parent plants. Likewise any plants which produce suckers can be propagated by removing the rooted suckers and growing them on. Secondly, there are plants that have distinct foliage clusters but fibrous crown. These plants will usually require careful cutting up and many in some cases have only a few roots per division. This can necessitate planting in some sort of nursery bed until establishment, although in most cases they will survive if planted out straight away.
This division can undertake when the plant are not growing too actively and the weather is not too warm. Thirdly, those plants which fleshy crowns with foliage emerging at many points. These will require careful cutting and many in case have distinct growth points.
Each division will need at least one growth point if it is to strike. This sort of division is best done just as the plants are emerging from dormancy. The line between division and natural layering overlap.
Many perennials and shrubs, particularly ground covers will strike roots wherever they come in contact with in the ground. If cut off at the appropriate point these aerial roots will then develop as normal subterean roots.
The actual size of the divide plant varies enormously depending on the plant. Propagation of potato Solanum tuberosum L.
Tubers Asexual propagation introduction to computers divided into sections each containing one or more eyes. Tubers are thickened underground stems that often develop at the tip of stolons or rhizomes and serve as storage organs. Tubers have no basal plate since they do not originate from the base of a stem. In potatoes Solanum tuberosum L. Tubers are anatomically the same as stems having internodes and nodes from which eyes develop containing one or more shoot buds.
Tuberous plants produce tubers each
Asexual propagation introduction to computers. The tubers then serve as an overwintering storage site producing new roots and shoots during the following season.
The new shoots use the reserves from Asexual propagation introduction to computers tuber for initial growth and produce new tubers for the following season. Many tuberous plants are propagated asexually by division of the tubers which divided into sections each containing one or more eyes. Potato can be planted directly as whole or divided to smaller parts of tuber which have a bud at the node for shoot development.
According to the findings, planting different Asexual propagation introduction to computers of potato tubers has a direct effect on potato yields [ 10 ]. Propagation of sweet potato Ipomoea batatas L. The sweet potato is modified root called tuberous root is perennial which grown as annual. It is an important traditional crop which is grown extensively in tropical countries for its nutritional and economic benefits [ 1112 ].
The propagation sweet potato can be done by two methods viz. The sprout slips propagation is very important to produce virus free plant and to produce vigorous tuber. Prior to planting the sweet potato from the storage roots, producing the sprout slips is very important practices which may take about weeks according to the environmental conditions temperature, humidity and ventilation.
The other propagation method of sweet potato is by vine cuttings. Woolfe reports that the Tip cuttings of sweet potato is about cm long with approximately eight nodes vines are collected from the nursery bed, or the last established planting are used for propagation [ 11 ].
He further elaborated that the tip cuttings should be taken from crops that are old enough to provide material without excessive damage. There propagation sweet potato, selecting the appropriate planting material is crucial in order to get the higher production of the crop.
Propagation of ginger Zingiber officinale by rhizome: Ginger is herbaceous perennial plant that is grown as an annual in commercial production which is widely used as a spice crop plant 13 ]. It is a Asexual propagation introduction to computers stem rhizome modified for the vegetative propagation and storage food materials. A rhizome is a swollen modified stem that runs horizontally under the ground that has contained vegetative buds which can be used for propagation by cutting into sections that each has at least one bud.
The sections are planted horizontally Asexual propagation introduction to computers the same way they were growing in the parent plant.
The rhizome size has a direct proportional effect on the yield and yield components of ginger productions. Propagation of onion Allium cepa L. Onion Allium cepa L. It is propagated either by seed or bulb [ 15 ]. Bulbs are a specialized underground organ consists of short, fleshy, usually Asexual propagation introduction to computers stem axis, at apex growing point and enclosed by thick flexi scales.
Bulb scales morphologically are the continuous sheathing leaf bases. There are two kinds of bulbs; tunicate and non-tunicate bulbs. The Tunicate bulbs have outer modified leaves, which are dry and paper thin. Non-tunicate or scaly bulbs lack this protective papery covering and are more easily damaged.
Introduction. Rooting Media The major methods of asexual propagation are cuttings, layering, division, and budding/grafting. Cuttings involve. Many plants are able to propagate themselves using asexual reproduction. This method does not require the investment required to produce a flower, attract. OCLC Number: Description: x, pages illustrations 24 cm. Contents: 1. General aspects of propagation: Introduction: Basic types of propagation.