Making sense of resilience: This article is intended to review the concept of resilience from the scope of paediatric psycho-oncology.
The origin, its different definitions and its suitability of application in the field of serious physical illness - such as cancer - will be analyzed.
Furthermore, the differences between resilience and other concepts commonly associated or confused with it, such as post-traumatic
Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating or benefit finding, will be discussed. Finally, a proposal for a comprehensive model of resilience in paediatric cancer will be put forward.
Although the word " resilience " did not appear until recently in the Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy Diccionario de la Real Academia Espaffola other Anglo-Saxon sources actually date it to ancient times Munist et al.
However, the exact definition will always depend on the specific discipline in which it is used. Originally, the term resilience is understood to refer to the ability of a substance or an object to resist and bounce back into its original shape after suffering a blow or a deforming pressure Kotliarenco et al.
It is for this reason that it is a concept frequently used in physics, mechanics and metallurgy, and ultimately adapted by social sciences and humanities. Historical development of the concept of resilience from the scope of social sciences and humanities.
Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating a result of his studies, the latter author offered a first definition of the concept, understanding it as "a declaration of competence developed by children, in spite of their exposure to extremely stressful situations " Garmezy, Garmezy was already indicating that the terms resilience and competence were not equivalent terms.
Competence is a term that describes a wide variety of behavior considered as adaptive. For its part, resilience would clearly be competence, but always in adverse situations. Garmezy asserted that one cannot speak about resilience without the presence of severe stress; it could perhaps be from the existence of a single, specific source of extreme stress acute stress - for example, natural disasters or the death of very close persons -; or perhaps through the successive accumulation of significant stressful factors chronic stress- for example, situations of extreme poverty, war or extremely severe illness Garmezy, Werner conducted a prospective longitudinal study with a cohort of children born in in Kauai, a Hawaiian Island.
These children lived in extreme poverty and grew up with alcoholic parents, parents who suffered from severe mental illness or who were unemployed without economic resources. In her study, Werner noted that once these children grew up, two thirds of them exhibit disruptive behaviors - such as substance abuse, unemployment or early pregnancies among girls.
However, in spite of everything, the remaining third of these children were able to adapt and show competent behaviors in adulthood. Werner called those Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating this group "resilient".
One of the obvious questions which arises from this work is: Why do individuals who have grown up in such adverse conditions manage to adapt so differently? Werner tried to answer this question by describing some of the key features of the young resilient group. Specifically, she noted that it was a question of one group of individuals who, despite having gone through a high-risk situation, had managed to function properly, in part, thanks to external support sources and to a certain inherent temperament, which she called "resistance".
Therefore, the origin of the study of resilience in psychiatry and psychology started when trying to understand the etiology and development of psychopathology, especially among children at risk for maladjustment Cicchetti, In the mids new streams began to emerge focusing on several researches: Another important source of literature on resilience can be found in humanists' writings.
In general, these are autobiographical accounts from people who have gone through various traumas or extreme experiences at some point in their lives, but who, nevertheless, have managed to survive and thrive physically and psychologically after such situations. We find, for instance, Boris Cyrulnik texts Cyrulnik, ; ;a Russian Jew who at age of 6 escaped from a Nazi concentration camp where his parents died.
After the war, Cyrulnik went through various youth centers, orphanages and foster families to finally end up in a charity farm. Currently, he is a highly regarded neurologist, psychiatrist and psychologist Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating being considered the "father of human ethology".
In his writings, Cyrulnik explains not only his example but also that of many other people who, after experiencing extreme situations such as his, have been able to reorganize their lives and carry on successfully Cyrulnik, ; ; Another example, perhaps more famous and yet close to the Cyrulnik narrative, is that of Viktor Frankla renowned Viennese Jewish psychiatrist creator of the logo-therapy.
Frankl was imprisoned by the Nazis indeported and sent to Auschwitz and then to Dachau. Viktor survived this horror and on the 27 th of April of was set free by the U.
Army after losing his wife and parents in the concentration camps. After his release, he returned to Vienna and wrote the book " Ein Psychologe erlebt das Konzentrationslager " Frankl, in which he describes his life as a prisoner literal translation of the title: The English translation was first published in the States in under the title " Man's Search for Meaning ".
In this book he argues that people can find meaning to their existence, even in the most extreme situations of dehumanization and suffering for further explanations of the concept of resilience from a humanistic approach, see: Current perspective of resilience and main definitions.
Although we have already mentioned that from the social and human sciences scope and, specifically, from psychology, the concept of resilience
Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating been Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating in a way that could be considered an analogy to its meaning in physics; to date, there is still no consensus with regard to its concrete definition.
As shown in Table 1we can find as many definitions as number of authors working in this field and, in some cases, some contradictions can be noted: However, although there is no agreed definition of resilience, some commonalities exist between different approaches. All the definitions considered present two constants: Both features constitute the essence of the construct of resilience. The term "adversity" can designate a constellation of many risk factors or even a life situation with specific problems.
Adversity can be objectively defined through standardized measures or expert criteria e. The definition of resilience provided by Luthar and Cicchetti could be considered an operative one: In many research of resilience, the mere absence of behavioral or emotional maladjustment in front of specific stressors has been considered positive adaptation or overcoming to an adversity Luthar et al.
However, positive adaptation includes both positive outcomes after a potential trauma and the way the individual reacts and copes with a concrete situation. Several concepts have been related to experiencing traumatic situations and consequently, to resilience. In this section, we will address two constructs that have been occasionally considered as core elements of resilience, either by complementarity or equality - as the case of post-traumatic growth - or by contrast - as in the case of post-traumatic stress disorder, which could be considered the antithesis of resilience.
This diagnostic category was meant Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating be applied to those individuals who, after being exposed to highly aversive, threatening or potentially traumatic situations, suffered a complex reaction.
This complex reaction follows certain patterns with specific features: Furthermore, these features are followed by certain criteria of duration and intensity over time. Thus, the definition of trauma had two implied ideas. Firstly, it was a unique and extreme experience that would irremediably have psychological effects to any human undergoing it e.
However, epidemiological data show that in front of potential traumatic situations no matter the nature of the eventthe majority of those affected are able to display adaptive responses. Clinical and health psychology models of vulnerability have been developed to explain human reactions in front of difficulties. Simultaneously, other type of models, usually called as "resistance" or "strength's models", have been developed to try to explain the mechanisms that activate a process of certain "immunity" in front of adversity.
This new approach of human endurance in front of adversities carries a major change in the conceptualization of traumatic events. Therefore, the Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating of universality disappears and it is pointed out that not all the people not even the majority of them will react in a pathological manner in front of extreme adversity situations'.
This leads to a growing body of research, which reveals that many trauma survivors also experience positive psychological changes after this experience. Different terms have been used to describe this phenomenon: One of the terms that has been largely accepted is post-traumatic growth hereinafter, PTGsince it seems to adequately capture the idea that there is a "growth", or a development beyond the level of functioning prior to the event. Regarding PTG, it should be considered that a normal response in front of a potentially traumatic or highly threatening situation is pain or negative feelings.
The fact that some people could obtain certain positive values after experiencing a traumatic situation does not mean that they do not experience negative changes in other domains. This idea of coexistence of positive and negative emotions is very important to understand the genesis of PTG. In other words, PTG is a process of reflection and an active search for "Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating" of the experience, as well as from the new narrative of personal life story developed to integrate the experience.
In this sense, the coexistence of positive and negative emotions in the individual could be an essential requisite to experience PTG. Change is usually the key element in the aftermath of trauma and this could imply both positive and negative consequences. Furthermore, it is not a universal response because not everyone will be able to learn from their own experiences.
For instance, people report to feel stronger and more able to cope with difficult situations in life. Changes in interpersonal relationships. For instance, increasing altruistic behaviors, feelings of intimacy, understanding or empathy for others' suffering or even, strengthening social relationships. Changes in spirituality or life philosophy. This is the most commonly reported change. For many people, to be more conscious of their own "Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating" and finiteness offers them an opportunity to rebuild their life philosophy to a better one.
Different research has been focused on identifying personality traits that could foster or hamper the development of a positive change in the aftermath of trauma. Optimism Bostock et al. It is generally assumed that most of the empirical evidence on the existence of PTG has been based from single-case studies with exceptionally mentally-strong or extraordinary people Masten, It is important to note that sometimes PTG can be confused with resilience and, in fact, some authors consider both terms to be synonyms Manciaux, In general, there is a trend called "French school", because of its mainly French origins, that tends to consider both concepts as equivalents Manciaux, However, it is worth remembering that a resilient response, as defined above, is the one that succeeds to achieve that the traumatic event does not interfere with the daily life of the individual, avoiding the experience of psychopathological symptoms Luthar et al.
Moreover, in some cases PTG may even occur in the presence of functional and psychopathological disturbance. As discussed in previous sections, lately more attention has been paid to the fact that many trauma survivors experience positive consequences in the aftermath of trauma. This phenomenon is often interchangeably treated as PTG post-traumatic growth or as benefit finding hereinafter, BF. This has lead to several problems.
Firstly, for many people, speaking on "growing" after a trauma could be unacceptable or even offensive. Secondly, the use of the term BF Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating of PTG has been preferred in many occasions by healthcare scientific literature scope, due to the humanistic connotation of PTG and the few operational definitions of the term.
Moreover, using the term BF facilitates a more operational definition and, at the same time, avoids the transformational features of the PTG. In other words, having positive consequences as a result of a traumatic event, it is not necessarily related to a higher performance compared to that prior to the trauma.
In this sense, research with childhood population exposed to traumatic or significantly adverse situations tends to use the term BF because of its substantial advantages compared to PTG. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of childhood and adolescence life stages, it would be extremely difficult to distinguish how many of the changes stated by the individual are explicitly due to the experience of the traumatic Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating itself, and how many changes are due to the maturation process typical to their developmental stage.
Although the difference between one concept and the other is still a matter of debate Kinsinger et al. Thus, in these studies BF is defined as: In several studies with patients having chronic diseases, a direct relationship has been found between the occurrence of BF and their general health status. Thus, the nature of BF could be interpreted from two different approaches. Evaluación de la autoestima en estudiantes de enfermería de una UNIFAL ( MG), Brasil. email: [email protected] Receipt date: October 8.
y autoconcepto-autoestima: Un estúdio com
Que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating de 14 a 14 anõs. Main · Videos; Radiometric dating explained simply southern que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating.
Main · Videos; Bijbels hebreeuws leren online dating reddit wtf · que es autoconcepto y autoestima yahoo dating · dating differences between us and europe.