The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britainthe north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea Beetles british isles yahoo dating its east, the English Channel to its south and Beetles british isles yahoo dating Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world.
It is also the 22nd-most populous countrywith an estimated The UK is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. The United Kingdom consists of four countries: EnglandNorthern IrelandScotlandand Wales. Apart from England, the countries have devolved administrations,  each with varying powers.
Beetles british isles yahoo dating influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies.
The United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a very high Human Development Indexranking 14th in the world.
It was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Although the United Kingdom, as a sovereign state, is a country, England, Scotland, Wales and, to a lesser degree, Northern Ireland are also regarded as countries, though they are not sovereign states.
The term "Great Britain" refers conventionally to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England, Scotland and Wales in combination. The term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain,    and as a synonym for the United Kingdom. The adjective "British" is commonly used to refer to matters relating to the United Kingdom. The has no definite legal connotation, but is used in law to refer to United Kingdom citizenship and matters to do with nationality.
In Welsh, the long
Beetles british isles yahoo dating name of the state is "Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon", with "Teyrnas Unedig" being used as a short form name on government websites. Settlement by anatomically modern humans of what was to become the United Kingdom occurred in waves beginning by about 30, years ago.
Inthe Normans Beetles british isles yahoo dating their Breton allies invaded England from northern France and after its conquestseized large parts of Walesconquered much of Ireland and were invited to settle in Scotlandbringing to each country feudalism on the Northern French model and Norman-French culture.
Following the Declaration of ArbroathScotland maintained its independence, albeit in near-constant conflict with England. The English monarchs, through inheritance of substantial territories in France and claims to the French crown, were also heavily involved in conflicts in France, most Beetles british isles yahoo dating the Hundred Years Warwhile the Kings of Scots were in an alliance with the French during this period.
The early modern period saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the introduction of Protestant state churches in each country. Inthe kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland were united in a personal union when James VI, King of Scotsinherited the crowns of England and Ireland and moved his court from Edinburgh to London; each country nevertheless remained a separate political entity and retained its separate political, legal, and religious institutions.
In the midth century, all three kingdoms were involved in a series of connected wars including the English Civil War which led to the temporary overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the short-lived unitary republic of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Although the monarchy was restoredthe Interregnum ensured along with the Glorious Revolution of and the subsequent Bill of Rightsand the Claim of Right Act that, unlike much of the rest of Europe, royal absolutism would "Beetles british isles yahoo dating" prevail, and a professed Catholic could never accede to the throne. The British constitution would develop on the basis of constitutional monarchy and the parliamentary system. During this period, particularly in England, the development of naval power and the interest in voyages of discovery led to the acquisition and settlement of overseas coloniesparticularly in North America.
Though previous attempts at uniting the two kingdoms within Great Britain in, and had proved unsuccessful, the attempt initiated in led to the Treaty of Union of being agreed and ratified by both parliaments.
On 1 Maythe united Kingdom of Great Britain came into being, the result of Acts of Union being passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to ratify the Treaty of Union and so unite the two kingdoms. In the 18th century, cabinet government developed under Robert Walpolein practice the first prime minister — The Jacobites were finally defeated at the Battle of Culloden inafter which the Scottish Highlanders were brutally suppressed. British imperial ambition turned towards Asia, particularly to India.
During the 18th century, Britain was involved in the Atlantic slave trade.
British ships transported an estimated two million slaves from Africa to the West Indies. Parliament banned the trade inbanned slavery in the British Empire inand Britain took a role in the movement to abolish slavery worldwide through the blockade of Africa and pressing other nations to end their trade with a series of treaties.
The world's oldest international human rights organisation, Anti-Slavery Internationalwas formed in London in The term Beetles british isles yahoo dating Kingdom" became official in when the parliaments of Britain and Ireland each passed an Act of Unionuniting the two kingdoms and creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In the early 19th century, the British-led Industrial Revolution began to transform the country. Gradually political power shifted away from the old Tory and Whig landowning classes towards the new industrialists. An alliance of merchants and industrialists with the Whigs would lead to a new party, the Liberalswith an ideology of free trade and Beetles british isles yahoo dating. In Parliament passed the Great Reform Actwhich began the transfer of political power from the aristocracy to the middle classes.
In the countryside, enclosure of the land was driving small farmers out. Towns and cities began to swell with a new urban working class.
Few ordinary workers had the vote, and they created their own organisations in the form of trade unions. After the defeat of France at the end of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars —Great Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century with London the largest city in the world from about Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, British dominance of much of world trade meant that it effectively Beetles british isles yahoo dating the economies of many regionssuch as Asia and Latin America.
During the century, the population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, Beetles british isles yahoo dating significant social and economic stresses. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand became self-governing
Beetles british isles yahoo dating. Social reform and home rule for Ireland were important domestic issues after The Labour Party emerged from an alliance of trade unions and small socialist groups inand suffragettes campaigned for women's right to vote before After the war, Britain received the League of Nations mandate over a number of former German and Ottoman colonies.
The British Empire reached its greatest extent, covering a fifth of the world's land surface and a quarter of its population.
The rise of Irish nationalismand disputes within Ireland over the terms of Irish Home Ruleled eventually to the partition of the island in Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom.
Britain had still not recovered from the effects of the war when the Great Depression — occurred. This led to considerable unemployment and hardship in the old industrial areas, as well as political and social unrest in the s, with rising membership in communist and socialist parties.
A coalition government was formed in Winston Churchill became prime minister and head of a coalition government in Despite the defeat of its European allies in the first year of the war, Britain and its Empire continued the fight alone against Germany. Urban areas suffered heavy bombing during the Blitz. There were also eventual hard-fought victories in the Battle of the Atlanticthe North Africa campaign and the Burma campaign. British forces played an important role in the Normandy landings ofachieved with its United States ally.
Independence was granted to India and Pakistan in Many became members of the Commonwealth of Nations. The UK was the third country to develop a nuclear weapons arsenal with its first atomic bomb test inbut the new post-war limits of Britain's international role were illustrated by the Suez Crisis of The international spread of the English language ensured the continuing international influence of its literature and culture.
In the following decades, the UK became a more multi-ethnic society than before. In the decade-long process of European integrationthe UK was a founding member of the alliance called the Western European Unionestablished with the London and Paris Conferences in The Treaty of Lisbon was signed inwhich forms the constitutional basis of the European Union since then.
From the late s, Northern Ireland suffered communal and Beetles british isles yahoo dating violence sometimes affecting other parts of the UK conventionally known as the Troubles.
It is usually considered to have ended with the Belfast "Good Friday" Agreement of Following a period of widespread economic slowdown and industrial strife in the s, the Conservative government of the s under Margaret Thatcher initiated a radical policy of monetarismderegulation, particularly of the financial sector for example, Big Bang in and labour markets, the sale of state-owned companies and the withdrawal of subsidies to others.
Fromthe economy was helped by the inflow of substantial North Sea oil revenues. Around the end of the 20th century there were major changes to the governance of the UK with the establishment of devolved administrations for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The UK is still a key global player diplomatically and militarily. However, controversy surrounds some of Britain's overseas military deploymentsparticularly in Afghanistan and Iraq. The global financial crisis severely affected the UK economy. The coalition government of introduced austerity measures intended to tackle the substantial public deficits which resulted. The article stipulates that the negotiations to leave will last at least two years.
The UK remains a full member of Beetles british isles yahoo dating EU during this time. The country occupies the major part of the British Isles  archipelago and includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland and some smaller surrounding islands.
The main rivers and estuaries are the ThamesSevern and the Humber. Scotland is the most mountainous country in the UK and its topography is distinguished by the Highland Boundary Fault —a geological rock fracture —which traverses Scotland from Arran in the west to Stonehaven in the east.
The main population and industrial areas are South Wales, consisting of the coastal cities of CardiffSwansea and Newportand the South Wales Valleys to their north.
The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia and include Snowdon Welsh: The United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. Atlantic currents, warmed by the Gulf Streambring mild winters;  especially in the west where winters are wet and even more so over high ground. Summers are warmest in the south-east of England, being closest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north.
Heavy snowfall can occur in winter and early spring on high ground, and occasionally settles to great depth away from the hills. The geographical division of the United Kingdom into counties or shires began in England and Scotland in the early Middle Ages and was complete throughout Great Britain and Ireland by the early Modern Period.
Modern local government by elected councils, partly based on the ancient counties, was introduced separately: The organisation of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to local arrangements.
The upper-tier subdivisions of England are the nine regionsnow used primarily for statistical purposes. Councillors are elected by the first-past-the-post system in single-member wards or by the multi-member plurality system in multi-member wards. For local government purposesScotland is divided into 32 council areaswith wide variation in both size and population. Local councils are made up of elected councillors, of whom there "Beetles british isles yahoo dating" 1,;  they are paid a part-time salary.
Elections are conducted by single transferable vote in multi-member wards that elect either three or four councillors. Each council elects a Provostor Convenorto chair meetings of the council and to act as a figurehead for the area. Local government in Wales consists of unitary authorities.
Location of the United Kingdom (dark green). – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the. The nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of The UK also has the oldest Chinese community in Europe, dating to the .
The Beatles have international sales of over one billion units and are the. URL: 300mb.info Email discussion group for all matters relating to beetles. Click on "Join Group" to gain. Introductory photoguide to British beetles - advance notice Richard Wright. 1. Beetle recording in britishisles group: 300mb.info beetles- The most up-to-date review of Cornwall's beetle fauna was published as each country, not within the British Isles as a whole. The following.