Recent decades have seen a rise in scholarship on the tourist imagination relating to the western gaze towards other cultures. In this essay, my theoretical standpoint is located in a nexus between museum studies, tourism studies, and anthropology, wherein the dynamic between the visitor and the heritage encountered can no longer be accepted as an innocent one. However, as I will elucidate, both communities are concurrently experiencing the homogenising influences of globalisation while striving to maintain and strengthen their distinctive local identities in the response to predatory tourism.
The research for this project received funding from the Royal Society of Edinburgh Small Grants scheme. Since then, Con la mirada celestial latino dating and policy have developed to consider museums and their cultural landscapes in a holistic way, making such research an urgent field of enquiry. Sustainability is, of course, a word often cited and seldom defined. In the spirit of the UNESCO Declaration, best practice will be seen to lie in community Con la mirada celestial latino dating and ownership, not only over community heritage, but also in processes of decision making and governance.
At best, negotiating tourism in locations such as the Isle of Skye in Scotland and the Boruca territory in south-eastern Costa Rica can result in a vernacular kind of globalisation. With no literature existing specifically on the museums I focus on, my research relies heavily on primary evidence — fieldwork and interviews with museum directors, policy makers, community leaders and the public —
Con la mirada celestial latino dating through the lens of what we might usefully refer to as cultural heritage tourism studies relating to eco- and community museums and their communities.
In what ways has the eco- and community museum movement been defined in each region? How does each museum consider community and cultural landscapes?
What has been the dialogue between policy makers and local communities in relation to museum policy and governance? What strategies are deployed in each context to enhance sustainability of the cultural landscapes?
Can eco- and community museums foster human well-being and national identity through nature and culture? The resulting Declaration, published by UNESCO inbrought about a paradigm shift from a museum focused on traditional values of custodianship, preservation, and interpretation, to one where the needs of the community are located at its core.
Moreover, only a handful of prominent scholars have written on the topic in English: At the same time, the growth of scholarship on cultural heritage, sustainability, and community is evident in both academia and policy.
Informative volumes on museums and community Con la mirada celestial latino dating WatsonCrookeand Golding have also appeared. Costa Rica has 41 museums, almost Con la mirada celestial latino dating of which are small, regional museums that call themselves, or can be identified as, museo comunitario or ecomuseo. Scotland has over museums, including regional museums identified as community or ecomuseums.
However, while the remote museums may be common in type, they function very differently in each context. This is because since the s, Latin America has arguably led the way in promoting community cohesion through museums. Socio-politically, their best museums aim to preserve local distinctiveness, create sustainable relations between the state and local communities, empower the rural poor through a sense of cultural identity, and resist homogenising forces of globalisation — many of these features will be seen in evidence in south-eastern Costa Rica.
Scotland has much to learn from such initiatives while sharing concepts and experiences here, including social inclusion policies and successful ecomuseum practice. Each museum is open air and encourages visitors to explore the natural landscapes and traditional structures by maintaining a focus on the cultural landscape of Con la mirada celestial latino dating territories. Both are essentially processes at various stages of progress.
Herein lies the rural community of Staffin, an area defined by a traditional crofting community which was established there before the clearances of the late nineteenth century. Enticing us to visit, the museum website hosts visually arresting images of dinosaur prints in Jurassic landscapes either preserved in the Ellishadder Museum or fossilised on Staffin beach archaeologists and families alike to at low tide in the right season.
Inevitably, this predatory heritage, together with the stunning surrounding landscape, has attracted a great deal of tourism to Staffin, and the ecomuseum concept has been used in this context as a dynamic force, capable of uniting surrounding tangible and intangible features as a unique cultural site, landscape, and community. It has also been used in a strategic effort to attract funding and deliver real benefits to the local community of Staffin. With all of this mysticism and stunning natural beauty, tourism at large generates millions of pounds for the local economy, and since the ecomuseum was established Staffin has seen an international footfall increase by 15, to 90, visitors per annum.
However, it Con la mirada celestial latino dating brings inherent problems to a designated area of scientific interest, and it could be argued that a musealisation of landscape turned commodity is taking place Salazar, The question poses itself: Has the Con la mirada celestial latino dating ecomuseum landscape become emblematic at the expense of its people?
On the outside, the ecomuseum seems exemplar. Signage at the thirteen sites is verbally and visually attractive for a range of ages, interpreting the landscape in both English and Gaelic through the lenses of history, ecology, and local mythology. In terms of governance, the Trust consists of a variety of members of the community: The business practice of the Trust is also seemingly transparent, with minutes of meetings available for public access through their web site.
In many ways the model is paradigmatic in practice and democratic in its decision-making processes. Recognising what local communities value about their landscapes, both cultural and natural, sets a place apart from its neighbours. Do they in fact engage with the ecomuseum, and do they even know it exists?
Do they recognise their cultural landscape in line with ecomuseum principles, and in what ways do they actually use it? An audience survey and development plan commissioned by Skye Ecomuseum itself in highlighted some pitfalls. The main visitor demographic is from the UK and Europe: For many of them, the hills have always been for rearing livestock and crops in crofts rather than for recreation, and while the locals and bus drivers interviewed knew the sites, the majority were only vaguely aware of the ecomuseum concept.
Moreover, when the focus groups were probed further, Con la mirada celestial latino dating did not know what an ecomuseum was Audience Development Plan Part 2, Appendix 3, A problem could nevertheless emerge when distinctiveness itself becomes commoditised, as Staffin attempts to compete with nearby Portree and other crofting territories, even a mile away, for tourism footfall.
In the framework of tourism studies, this question could never be more prescient. According to the United Nation World Tourism Organisation, by the year international tourism arrivals will have reached 1.
In many ways, such worldwide circulation of people, ideas, and fantasies, as well as capital, can only be predatory in nature, and so it is the task of the people managing museums and cultural heritage at large to find ways to negotiate the impact of visitors on their community in their own terms.
In the words of Girard and Nijkamp:. Cultural heritage — a broad container concept — has a hate-love relationship with modern tourism.
It acts as an attraction force for people from different places of origin, while it stimulates local socio-economic development and reinforces a sense of local identity and pride. On the other hand, vast volumes of tourist flows may be at odds with the ecologically benign development of localities and may negatively affect social cohesion at a local level.
Consequently, the issue of local sustainable development is at stake herep. The initiatives can also be paralleled with recent thinking in development studies wherein there is a move to place local people and their culture at the centre of development work, and where participatory, transparent, integral business models are seen as best practice.
It goes without saying that community development and social progress have been the overarching objectives of the museum movement of past decades, related to a larger challenge to define museums and their theory and practice.
Perhaps most significantly, though, museos comunitarios offer a distinctive counterfoil to the traditional anthropology or ethnographic museums that have been so criticised in recent decades by both the academic community and the peoples whom they purport to represent, especially the indigenous communities Kreps,p. Native peoples are questioning the way cultures displayed in museums are fixed in time and space and focus on the past, and they ask: As Kreps has argued, such knowledge can be lost through academic training and curation, where, in fact, indigenous curatorial knowledge and practices can contribute to cross-cultural knowledge of museology.
Inside the are over 1, Con la mirada celestial latino dating people and over 1, non-indigenous people whom they call mestizos.
It could be said that the strengthening of local identity in the Costa Rican museums in question challenges threats of globalisation, of the type identified by Appadurai relating to resistance, selectivity, and agency Appadurai,p.
Indeed, the example of Costa Rica museos comunitarios shows an Con la mirada celestial latino dating attempting to integrate indigenous knowledge systems in a local cultural context to better serve the community and its needs. Initiatives include safeguarding the collective memory of the community where it lies in oral traditions and personal stories, as well as in objects such as their stone spheres, said to be pre-Columbian.
Considered together, these objects and settings offer the tourist imagination a distinctive alternative to the type of culture presented in a major national museum in Costa Rica or elsewhere, where objects such as these pre-Columbian spheres become de-contextualised and take on an alternative aura to their original context.
The interview also points to the reciprocal and contested relationship between tourism and culture where the local people are selling indigenous crafts and performing displays of their intangible heritage for a tourist market in order to make a living. These stone spheres range from only a few centimetres to several metres in diameter and are said to have been symbols of rank, power, and ethnic identity.
Whether situated in the National Museum or in the entrance foyer to Quai Branly in Paris, these spheres are transported into an alien environment across terrain, even continents, in order to satisfy the touristic gaze, which has perhaps neither the time, resources, or even the interest to see the object in its original context.
By contrast, the stone sphere on the El Silencia site in Boruca territory can only be seen in the rainforest with a guide. It is the largest so far registered, measuring 2. The local school Con la mirada celestial latino dating feels duty-bound to pass on knowledge about these objects, as well as the stones they call galletas biscuits that were placed by ancestors next to bodies to preserve their sacred burial sites, together with other indigenous Con la mirada celestial latino dating, including the building of ranchos and the making of baskets, trays, and traditional masks.
For the museos comunitarios of Costa Rica, as for Skye Ecomuseum, we might therefore ask: Whose voices are being heard, and whose silenced? Therefore, their motives are strongly linked to aspirations for indigenous education as they strive to pass on knowledge about traditional crafts and customs to their young people while functioning within the curricular norms of the Ministry of Education.
One hundred people were in favour, yet many others were against it, and it seems clear that there is still a long road to travel in efforts to stake a claim for their culture, especially in language rights.
To take one example, the school wishes to teach its young people to carve and weave, but the use of tools is prohibited by the Ministry in case the young people hurt themselves. Such sites are under the threat of huacas or huaqueros tomb robberswho dig up vases or stones looking for gold and precious goods. The local community will now report them to the police, or at least try to stop it from happening.
Instead, the site is being promoted as a place of interest for both the public and tourists, and its tourist offerings are publicised online through national organisations and fora. In Boruca village, the local people are also resisting the purchase of land
Con la mirada celestial latino dating non-indigenous people who historically enter the community and chop down trees in the savanna, where all the raw materials, such as pine trees, grow.
They are canvassing, for example, to gain their traditional access sea snails, which live in a restricted natural reserve and from which they obtain their traditional, purple-coloured dye for use in weaving. Another initiative is obtaining vacant lots of land for the whole community so they can plant balso wood used for making their traditional masks which they then sell to the tourist market. The initiative prevents people from buying the wood at an inflated price elsewhere, and is linked to a longer history of unrest around ownership in the indigenous territories Martinez,p.
When interviewed, the local women recalled how only one local man knew how to build the roof of the rancho. When the roof collapsed, he charged them a million Costa Rica colones, but by then they had the support of the National Museum and were able to pay it.
The community is firmly supported by the National Museum through the Costa Rica network, and also through the Museos Comunitarios Spanish American network, both of which the community recognises and values as supporting and strengthening them.
The festival traditionally takes place from 30th December to 2nd January each year, during which time they have a lot of chichatamalesand pork. The dance is performed only by men and represents the conquest of the Spanish represented by the bull and the indigenous people los diablitos who take the forms of birds, snails, hammocks, whistles, or machetes through carved masks.
These masks were originally unpainted and made of bolso wood, but today they are brightly painted for the tourist market, especially for visitors from the United States. Meanwhile, they want to make a film of him to show in the museum.
The community is also currently working to have the dance recognised as a national intangible cultural heritage event supported by the Ministry of Culture.
When asked specifically about the relationship between culture and tourism, Con la mirada celestial latino dating local headmaster replied:. Con la mirada celestial latino dating no vendemos, y de una vez aclaro, no vendemos cultura, no vendemos la cultura.
Both locations have witnessed clear, strong dialogue between policy makers and local communities in relation to museum policy and governance, but the conditions in which they function are quite different, and the indigenous agenda of Boruca will have ongoing struggles in a cultural context.
To enhance sustainability of the cultural landscapes, the strategy in "Con la mirada celestial latino dating" has been to undergo a proper audience analysis in response to a recent funding bid, and to make recommendations based upon it.
In Costa Rica the strategies are in many ways more complex, as multiple ministries, support organisations, and agencies have their own agendas, in addition to those of the local community.
By strengthening its museum community and collective vision through local and regional networks, the community is Con la mirada celestial latino dating gaining agency over decision making and gathering political force.
If tourism is the predator, then the museums under investigation become paradigmatic as well as pragmatic, developing agency over local and national decision-making processes. Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Main · Videos; Macedonian women dating mirada celestial latino dating mirada celestial latino dating beneficios de la berenjena yahoo dating beneficios de.
En el último mes tuve la oportunidad de estar en seis países diferentes. for the Hispanic Baptist community through BPEE (Baptist Press en Advanced Search; Quick Search; Date Search LA MIRADA, Calif. por lo menos dos nacionalidades en la que la ciudadanía celestial deber tener prioridad. Following the Declaration, Hugues de Varine and Henri Rivière led the today eco- and community museums exist predominantly in Europe and in Latin America in which 5And yet to date, no substantial bi-regional study has appeared comparing and .
Memoria de la Red de Museos Comunitarios de Costa Rica.