After the rapid of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit.
Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, medical radiation exposure has increased rapidly. For medical radiation exposure control, Korea has two separate control systems.
Regulation is essential to control medical radiation exposure. Physicians and radiologists What is the principle of radioactive hookup be aware of the radiation risks and benefits associated with medical exposure, and understand and implement the principles of radiation protection for patients. The education of the referring physicians and radiologists is also important. Since its discovery of X-ray by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, medical radiation is widely used and it is inevitable use for diagnosis and treatment of patients.
Due to the Japanese nuclear accidents on Marchthe whole world trembled in fear of radiation. This had a side effect of increasing awareness of medical radiation exposure and increase of interest in radiation protection in Korea. International commission of radiation protection ICRP suggested general principles of radiation protection as three key words; justification, optimization and dose limit. Because medical exposure of patients has unique considerations, it is not appropriate to apply dose limits or dose constraints.
Dose limits are not at all relevant, since ionizing radiation, used at the appropriate level of dose for the particular medical purpose, is an essential tool that will cause better than harm. Therefore medical radiation does not have dose limits, and generally used diagnostic reference level DRL as a reference value 1.
To decrease radiation exposure risks, any medical radiation exposure must be justified and the examinations which use ionizing radiation must be optimized. Justification means that the examination must be medically indicated and useful. Optimization means that the imaging should be performed using doses that are as low as reasonably achievable
What is the principle of radioactive hookupconsistent with the diagnostic task.
International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP proposed a system of radiation protection with its three principles of justification, optimization and individual dose limitation in publication In publication 60, ICRP revised its recommendations and extended its philosophy to a system of radiological protection while keeping the fundamental principles of protection.
ICRP published reportas a revised general recommendation for a system of radiation protection in This new recommendations provide guidance on the fundamental principles on What is the principle of radioactive hookup appropriate radiological protection can be based. In these Recommendations, they also clarified how the fundamental principles apply to radiation sources and to the individual, as well as how the source-related principles apply to all controllable situations.
Any decision that alters the radiation exposure situation should do more good than harm. This means that, by introducing a new radiation source, by reducing exposure, or by reducing the risk of potential exposure, one should achieve sufficient individual or societal benefit to offset the detriment it causes.
This means that the level of protection should be the best under the prevailing circumstances, "What is the principle of radioactive hookup" the margin of benefit over harm. In order to avoid severely inequitable outcomes of this optimization procedure, there should be restrictions on the doses or risks to individuals from a particular source dose or risk constraints and reference levels. The total dose to any individual from regulated sources in planned exposure situations other than medical exposure of patients should not exceed the appropriate limits recommended by the Commission.
The concepts of dose constraint and reference level are used in conjunction with the optimization of protection to restrict individual doses. A level of individual dose, either as a dose constraint or a reference level, always needs to be defined. The initial "What is the principle of radioactive hookup" would be to not exceed, or to remain at, these levels, and the ambition is to reduce all doses to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable, economic and societal factors being taken into account.
Diagnostic reference levels are already being used in medical diagnosis i. If so, a local review should be initiated to determine whether protection has been adequately optimized or whether corrective action is required. The Commission distinguishes between three categories of exposures: Occupational exposure is defined as all radiation exposure of workers incurred as a result of their work. The employer has the main responsibility for the protection of workers. Public exposure encompasses all exposures of the public other than occupational exposures and medical exposures of patients.
It is incurred as a result of a range of radiation sources. The component of public exposure due to natural sources is by far the largest, but this provides no justification for reducing the attention paid to smaller, but more readily controllable, exposures to man-made sources. Exposures of the embryo and fetus of pregnant workers are considered and regulated as public exposures. Radiation exposures of patients occur in diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic procedures.
There are several features of radiological practices in medicine that require an approach that differs from the radiological protection in other planned exposure situations. The exposure is intentional and for the direct benefit of the patient.
The application of these Recommendations to the medical uses of radiation therefore requires separate guidance. Several features of "What is the principle of radioactive hookup" exposure in medicine for patients require an approach to radiological protection that is somewhat different from that for other types of radiation exposure.
The exposure of patients is deliberate. Except in radiation therapy, it is not the aim to deliver radiation dose,
What is the principle of radioactive hookup rather to use the radiation to provide diagnostic information or to conduct an interventional procedure. Medical uses of radiation for patients are voluntary in nature, combined with the expectation of direct individual health benefit to the patient. The voluntary decision is made with varying degrees of informed consent that includes not only the expected benefit but also the potential risks.
The amount of information provided in order to obtain informed consent
What is the principle of radioactive hookup based on the exposure level e. The exception to the concept of a voluntary exposure leading to a direct individual medical benefit is the use of radiation in biomedical research. In these circumstances, the voluntary exposure usually accrues to a societal benefit rather than an individual benefit.
Informed consent is always needed. Screening is performed with the aim of identifying a disease process that has not become manifest clinically. Current screening practices using ionizing radiation appear to be valid and are recommended for certain populations.
Patients undergoing screening should be fully informed of the potential benefits and risks, including the radiation risks.
Each application of ionizing What is the principle of radioactive hookup for screening of asymptomatic individuals should be evaluated and justified with regard to its clinical merit. Because medical exposure of patients has unique considerations, it addresses the proper application of the fundamental principles justification, optimization of protection and application of dose limits of radiation protection. With regard to medical exposure of patients, it is not appropriate to apply dose limits, because such limits would often do more harm than good.
Often, there are concurrent chronic, severe, or even life-threatening medical conditions that are more critical than the radiation exposure.
The emphasis is then on justification of the medical procedures and on the optimization of radiological protection. In diagnostic and interventional procedures, justification of procedures for a defined purpose and for an individual patientand management of the patient dose commensurate with the medical task, are the appropriate mechanisms to avoid unnecessary or unproductive radiation exposure.
Equipment features that facilitate patient dose management, and diagnostic reference levels derived at the appropriate national, regional, or local level, are likely to be the most effective approaches. In radiation therapy, the avoidance of accidents is a predominant issue. With regard to comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research, dose constraints are appropriate.
Justification in radiological protection of patients is different from justification of other radiation applications, in that generally the very same person enjoys the benefits and suffers the risks associated with a procedure. There may be other considerations: But usually, risks and benefits accrue to the same person. And, a very important aspect in daily medical practice: The aim of the second level of justification is to judge whether the radiological procedure will improve the diagnosis or treatment, or will provide necessary information about the exposed individuals.
Hence all individual medical exposures should be justified in advance, taking into account the specific objectives of the exposure the characteristics of the individual involved.
Optimization of protection for patients is also unique. In optimization of protection of the patient in diagnostic procedures, again the same person gets the benefit and suffers the risk, and again individual restrictions on patient dose could be counterproductive to the medical purpose of the procedure. The optimization of radiological protection for patients in medicine is usually applied at two levels: The basic aim of this optimization of protection is to adjust the protection measures for a source of radiation in such a way that the net benefit is maximized.
The optimization of protection in medical exposures does not necessarily mean the reduction of doses to the patient. The diagnostic reference level DRL applies to medical exposure, as a form of investigation level.
They contribute to good radiological practice in medicine. The numerical values of DRLs are advisory; however, implementation of the DRL concept may be
What is the principle of radioactive hookup by an authorized body. It is inappropriate to use the numerical values for DRLs as regulatory limits or for commercial purposes.
The values should be reviewed at intervals that represent a compromise between the necessary stability and the long-term changes in the observed dose distributions. The selected values could be specific to a country or region.
A DRL can be used to improve a regional, national, or local distribution of observed results for What is the principle of radioactive hookup general medical imaging task, by reducing the frequency of unjustified high or low values.
Also it promotes attainment of a narrower and optimal range of values that represent good practice for specific imaging protocols. After the rapid adoption of multi-detector CT, radiation doses from CT are now the single largest source of diagnostic radiation exposure to patients.
The significant change in ionizing radiation exposure was due to an increase in medical exposure and other causes did not increase significantly 34. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements reported the changes of ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States.
The expected average radiation exposure in the US was 3. Exposure resulting from radiation therapy was not included in the results 4. In Korea, Kim investigated the number of diagnostic radiation procedures based on the statistics of National Insurance.
They estimated effective doses for CT and conventional radiography based on the survey data in Korea. Annual effective dose per person was 1. For medical radiation exposure control, Korea has two separate control system. First, diagnostic radiation control falls under the Medical Services Act which is carried by the Ministry of Health and Welfare.
On the other hand, therapeutic radiation and nuclear medicine control falls under the Nuclear Safety Act which is carried by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission. There are two components to the rules under the medical service act; one is for safety control of diagnostic X-ray generating equipment; management of equipment and radiation protection facilities, regulated by Korean center for disease control, the other is for installation and operation of special medical equipment quality assurance What is the principle of radioactive hookup on CT, MRI and mammography.
These cover the management of equipment, occupational exposure, and radiation protection facilities, but the current regulation is not focused on patient safety.
Many national and international organizations have made a significant effort to regulate and monitor medical radiation exposure using guidelines, accreditation, or even laws. This could be achieved by continuous interest from health professionals and organizations. Radioactive decay is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by . Transition diagram for decay modes of a radionuclide, with neutron number N.
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