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Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating

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At the level of international relations, geopolitics is a method of studying foreign policy to understand, explain and predict international political behavior through geographical variables.

These include area studiesclimatetopographydemographynatural resourcesand applied science of the region being evaluated. Geopolitics focuses on political power linked to geographic space.

In particular, territorial waters and land territory in correlation with diplomatic history. Outside academia, a variety of groups offer geopolitical analysis, including non-profit groups and for-profit private institutions such as brokerage houses [4] and consulting companies [5].

Topics of geopolitics include relations between the interests of international political actors and interests focused within an area, a space, or a geographical element; relations which create a geopolitical system. According to Christopher Gogwilt and other researchers, the term is currently being used to describe a broad spectrum of concepts, in a general sense used as "a synonym for international political Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating, but more specifically "to imply the global structure of such relations", which builds on "early-twentieth-century term for a pseudoscience of political geography " Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating other pseudoscientific theories of historical and geographic determinism.

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Oil and international competition over oil and gas resources was Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating of the main foci of the geopolitics literature from World War and onward. Alfred Thayer Mahan —a frequent commentator on world naval strategic and diplomatic affairs, believed that national greatness was inextricably associated with the sea—and particularly with its commercial use in peace and its control in Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating. Mahan's theoretical framework came from Antoine-Henri Jominiand emphasized that strategic locations such as chokepointscanals, and coaling stationsas well as quantifiable levels of fighting power in a fleet, were conducive to control over the sea.

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He proposed six conditions required for a nation to have sea power:. Mahan regarded those countries, located between Britain and Russia, as if between "Scylla and Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating. Of the Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating monsters — Britain and Russia — it was the latter that Mahan considered more threatening to the fate of Central Asia. Mahan was impressed by Russia's transcontinental size and strategically favorable position for southward expansion.

Therefore, he found it necessary for the Anglo-Saxon "sea power" to resist Russia. The Austro-Hungarian historian Emil Reich — is considered to be the first having coined the acceptance in English [15] as early as and later in in his book Foundations of Modern Europe. The "fatal" relationship of Russia, Japan, and Germany "has now assumed through the urgency of natural forces a coalition directed against the survival of Saxon supremacy. He thought the Anglo-Saxons faced certain disaster from their militant opponents.

Sir Halford Mackinder 's Heartland Theory initially received little attention outside geography, but some thinkers would claim that it subsequently influenced the foreign policies of world powers. Mackinder's doctrine of geopolitics involved concepts diametrically opposed to the notion of Alfred Thayer Mahan about the Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating of navies he coined the term sea power in world conflict.

He saw navy as a basis of Colombian Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating empire roughly from to the 19th centuryand predicted the 20th century to be domain of land power. The Heartland theory hypothesized a huge empire being brought into existence in the Heartland—which wouldn't need to use coastal or transoceanic transport to remain coherent.

The basic notions of Mackinder's doctrine involve considering the geography of the Earth as being divided into two sections: Not only was the Periphery noticeably smaller than the World Island, it necessarily required much sea transport to function at the technological level of the World Island—which contained sufficient natural resources for a developed economy. Mackinder posited that Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating industrial centers of the Periphery were necessarily located in widely separated locations.

The World Island could send its navy to destroy each one of them in turn, and could locate its own industries in a region further inland than the Periphery so they would have a longer struggle reaching them, and "Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating" face a well-stocked industrial bastion. Mackinder called this region the Heartland.

It essentially comprised Central and Eastern Europe: UkraineWestern Russiaand Mitteleuropa. Mackinder's notion of geopolitics was summed up when he said:. Who rules Central and Eastern Europe commands the Heartland. Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island.

Who rules the World-Island commands the World. Spykman is both a follower and critic of Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating Alfred Mahanand Halford Mackinder.

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His work is based on assumptions similar to Mackinder's, [21] including the unity of world politics and the world sea. He extends this to include the unity of the air. Spykman adopts Mackinder's Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating of the world, renaming some:. Under Spykman's theory, a Rimland separates the Heartland from ports that are usable throughout the year that "Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating," not frozen up during winter.

Spykman suggested this required that attempts by Heartland nations particularly Russia to conquer ports in the Rimland must be prevented. Spykman modified Mackinder's formula on the relationship between the Heartland and the Rimland or the inner crescentclaiming that "Who controls the rimland rules Eurasia.

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Who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world. Another famous follower of Mackinder was Karl Haushofer who called Mackinder's Geographical Pivot of History a "genius' scientific tractate. Following Mackinder he suggested an alliance with the Soviet Union and, advancing a step beyond Mackinder, added Japan to his design of the Eurasian Bloc.

Both continued their influence on geopolitics after the end of the Cold War, [28] writing books on the subject in the s— Diplomacy Kissinger and The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives. Kissinger argued against the approach that with the dissolution of the USSR hostile intentions had disappeared "Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating" traditional foreign policy considerations no Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating applied.

After Russia, the second geopolitical threat remained Germany and, as Mackinder had feared ninety years ago, its partnership with Russia. During the Cold War, Kissinger argues, both sides of the Atlantic recognized that, "unless America is organically involved in Europe, it would be obliged to involve itself later under circumstances far less favorable to both sides of the Atlantic.

That is even more true today. Germany has become so strong that existing European institutions cannot by themselves strike a balance between Germany and its European partners. Nor can Europe, even with Germany, manage by itself […] Russia.

They would raise fears of condominium. Spykman's vision of Eurasia was strongly confirmed: The domination by a single power of either of Eurasia's two principal spheres—Europe and Asia—remains a good definition of strategic danger for America.

Cold War or no Cold War. For such a grouping would have the capacity to outstrip America economically and, in the end, Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating. That danger would have to be resisted even were the dominant power apparently benevolent, for if the intentions ever changed, America would find itself with a grossly diminished capacity for effective resistance and a growing inability to shape events. Having converted from ideologist into geopolitician, Kissinger in retrospect interpreted the Cold War in geopolitical terms—an approach not characteristic for his works during the Cold War.

Now, however, he stressed on the beginning of the Cold War: Living with China, Europe, and Russia. In classical Spykman terms, Brzezinski formulized his geostrategic "chessboard" doctrine of Eurasia, which aims to prevent the unification of this megacontinent. It follows that… American foreign policy must…employ its influence in Eurasia in a manner that creates a stable continental equilibrium, with the United States as the political arbiter.

But in the meantime it is imperative that no Eurasian challenger emerges, capable of dominating Eurasia and thus also of challenging America… For America the chief geopolitical prize is Eurasia…and America's global primacy is directly dependent on how long and how effectively its preponderance on the Eurasian continent is sustained. German Geopolitik is characterized by the belief that life of States—being similar to those of human beings and animals—is shaped by scientific determinism and social Darwinism.

Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating geopolitics develops the concept of Lebensraum living space that is thought to be necessary to the development of a nation like a favorable natural environment would be for animals.

Friedrich Ratzel —influenced by thinkers such as Darwin and zoologist Ernst Heinrich Haeckelcontributed to 'Geopolitik' by the expansion on the biological conception of geography, without a static conception of borders. Positing that states are organic and growing, with borders representing only a temporary stop in their movement, he held that the expanse of a state's borders is a reflection of the health of the nation—meaning Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating static countries are in decline.

Ratzel published several papers, among which was the essay "Lebensraum" concerning biogeography. Ratzel created a foundation for the German variant of geopolitics, geopolitik.

Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating by the American geostrategist Alfred Thayer MahanRatzel wrote of aspirations for German naval reach, agreeing that sea power was self-sustaining, as the profit from trade would pay for the merchant marine, Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating land power.

The geopolitical theory of Ratzel has been criticized as being too sweeping, and his Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating of human history and geography being too Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating and mechanistic. Critically, he also underestimated the importance of social organization in the development of power.

The key concepts of Haushofer's Geopolitik were Lebensraum, autarkypan-regionsand organic borders. States have, Haushofer argued, an undeniable right to seek natural borders which would guarantee autarky.

Haushofer's influence within the Nazi Party has recently been challenged, [41] given that Haushofer failed to incorporate the Nazis' racial ideology into his work. Popular views of the role of geopolitics in the Nazi Third Reich suggest a fundamental significance on the part of the geo-politicians in the ideological orientation of the Nazi state.

Bassin reveals that these popular views are in important ways misleading and incorrect. Despite the numerous similarities and affinities between the two doctrines, geopolitics was always held suspect by the National Socialist ideologists. This was understandable, for the underlying philosophical orientation of geopolitics did not comply with that of National Socialism.

La geopolítica básicamente es la...

Geopolitics shared Ratzel's scientific materialism and geographic determinismand held that human society was determined by external influences—in the face of which qualities held innately by individuals or groups were of reduced or no significance. National Socialism rejected in principle both materialism and determinism and also elevated innate human qualities, in the form of a hypothesized 'racial character,' to the factor of greatest significance in the constitution of human society.

These differences led after to friction and ultimately to open denunciation of geopolitics by Nazi ideologues. The resultant negative Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating, particularly in U. This has been observed in particular by critics of contemporary academic geography, and proponents of a "neo"-classical geopolitics in particular.

These include Haverluk et al. Negative associations with the term "geopolitics" and its practical application stemming from its association with World War II and pre-World War II German scholars and students of Geopolitics are largely specific to the field of academic Geographyand especially sub-disciplines of Human Geography such as Political Geography.

However, this negative association is not as strong in disciplines such as History or Political Sciencewhich make use of geopolitical concepts. Classical Geopolitics forms an important element of analysis for Military History as well as Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating subdisciplines of Political Science such as International Relations and Security Studies.

This difference in disciplinary perspectives is addressed by Bert Chapman in Geopolitics: A Guide To the Issuesin which Chapman makes note that academic and professional International Relations journals are more amenable to the study and analysis of Geopolitics, and in particular Classical Geopolitics, than contemporary academic journals in the field of Political Geography. In disciplines outside GeographyGeopolitics is not negatively viewed as it often is among academic geographers such as Carolyn Gallaher or Klaus Dodds as a tool of Imperialism or associated with Nazismbut rather viewed as a valid and consistent manner of assessing major international geopolitical circumstances and events, not necessarily related to armed conflict or military operations.

French geopolitical Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating broadly opposed to German Geopolitik and reject the idea of a fixed geography. French geography is focused on the evolution of polymorphic territories being the result of mankind's actions. It also relies on the consideration of long time periods through a refusal to take specific events into account. This method has been theorized by Professor Lacoste Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating to three principles: Representation ; Diachronie ; and Diatopie.

In The Spirit of the LawsMontesquieu outlined the view that man and societies are influenced by climate. He believed that hotter climates create hot-tempered people and colder climates aloof people, whereas the mild climate of France is ideal for political systems. Alike Ratzel, he considers geography through a global vision. ción con otras aproximaciones, la geopolítica, los debates me- todológicos: ofrecen una toma en cuenta como punto de partida la definición de Gallino y se traslada el concepto Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating oligarchic dictatorship” dating back to the Constitutional period in the 300mb.info, [email protected] Does Tubular Chauncey remedy your covered diaper in geopolitica Geopolitica definicion yahoo dating yahoo dating a robust way?

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