Palmaresor Quilombo dos Palmareswas a quilomboa fugitive community of escaped slaves and others, Guerra do contestado resumo yahoo dating colonial Brazil that developed from until its suppression in It was located in what is today the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The modern tradition has been to call the community the Quilombo of Palmares. Quilombos were settlements mainly of survivors and free-born enslaved African people.
The quilombos came into existence when Africans began arriving in Brazil in the mids and grew significantly as slavery expanded. No contemporary document called Palmares a quilombo ; instead the term mocambo was used.
One estimate places the population of Palmares in the s at around 20, inhabitants, [ citation needed ] although recent scholarship has questioned whether this figure is exaggerated. Stuart Schwartz places the number at roughly 11, noting that it was, regardless, "undoubtedly the largest fugitive community to have existed in Brazil".
This government was confederate in nature, and was led by an elected chief who allocated landholdings, appointed officials usually family membersand resided in a type of fortification called Macoco. Six Portuguese expeditions tried to conquer Palmares between andbut failed. Finally the governor of the captaincy of PernambucoPedro Almeida, organized an army under the leadership of the Bandeirantes Domingos Jorge Velho and Bernardo Vieira de Melo and defeated a palmarista force, putting "Guerra do contestado resumo yahoo dating" end to the republic in Palmares was the general name given by the Portuguese in Pernambuco and Alagoas to the interior districts beyond the settlements Guerra do contestado resumo yahoo dating the coast, especially the mountain ranges, because there were many palm trees there.
As early asPortuguese settlers complained to the government that their captives were running away into this inaccessible region and building mocambosor small communities. However, the Portuguese were unable to dislodge these communities, which were probably small and scattered, and so
Guerra do contestado resumo yahoo dating continued periodically into the interior. This large number was primarily because the Portuguese used the colony of Angola as a major raiding base, and there was a close relationship between the holders of the contract of Angolathe governors of Angolaand the governors of Pernambuco.
Although they captured and held the city of Recifethey were unable and generally unwilling to conquer the rest of the province. As a result, there was a constant low-intensity war between Dutch and Portuguese settlers.
During this time thousands of enslaved people escaped and went to the Palmares. Although initially the Dutch considered making an alliance with Palmares against the Portuguese, [ citation needed ] peace agreements put them in the position of supporting the sugar plantation economy of Pernambuco. These expeditions also collected intelligence about them, and it is from these accounts that we learn about the organization of Palmares in their time. By the s, many of the mocambos had consolidated into larger entities ruled by kings.
In each of these units there was a large central town that was fortified and held 5, people. The surrounding hills and valleys were filled with many more mocambos of 50 to people.
A description of the visit of Johan Blaer to one of the larger mocambos in which had been abandoned revealed that there were buildings in the community, a church, four smithiesand a council house. Churches were common in Palmares partly because Angolans were frequently Christianizedeither from the Portuguese colony or from the Kingdom of Kongowhich was a Christianized country at that time. Others had been converted to Christianity while enslaved. According to the Dutch, they used a local person who knew something of the church as a priest, though they did not think he practiced the religion in its usual form.
After the Dutch were expelled, and the Portuguese began organizing expeditions against the mocambos of Palmares. In
Guerra do contestado resumo yahoo dating post- Iberian Union period afterthe kingdoms of Palmares grew and became even more consolidated.
Slightly later accounts tell us that the kingdom was named "Angola Janga" which according to the Portuguese meant "Little Angola," although this is not a direct translation from a Kimbundu term as one might expect.
He also had officials and judges as well as a more or less standing army. Although the "Guerra de Palmares" consistently calls the king Ganga Zumba, and translates his name as "Great Lord" other documents, including a letter addressed to the king written in refer to him as "Ganazumba" which is consistent with a Kimbundu term ngana meaning Guerra do contestado resumo yahoo dating. One other official, Gana Zona also had this element in his name. The governor responded by agreeing to pardon Gana Zumba and all
Guerra do contestado resumo yahoo dating followers, on Guerra do contestado resumo yahoo dating that they move to a position closer to the Portuguese settlements and return all enslaved Africans that had not been born in Palmares.
Although Gana Zumba agreed to the terms, one of his more powerful leaders, Zumbi refused to accept the terms. According to a deposition made in by a Portuguese priest, Zumbi was born in Palmares inbut was captured by Portuguese forces in a raid while still an infant. He was raised by the priest, and taught to read and write Portuguese and Latin. At the age of 15, however, Zumbi escaped and returned to Palmares. "Guerra do contestado resumo yahoo dating" he quickly won a reputation for military skill and bravery and was promoted to the leader of a large mocambo.
In a short time, Zumbi had organized a rebellion against Ganga Zumba, who was styled as his uncle, and poisoned him though this is not proven, and many believe Zumba poisoned himself as a warning not to trust the Portuguese. It is argued that Zumba was sick of fighting, but even more wary of signing the deal with the Portuguese, foreseeing their betrayal, and renewed war.
By the Portuguese were again sending military expeditions against Zumbi. Meanwhile, the sugar planters reneged on the agreement and re-enslaved many of Gana Zumba's followers who had moved closer to the coast.
From tothe Portuguese and Zumbi, now the new king of Angola Janga, waged an almost constant war of greater or lesser violence. The final assault against Palmares occurred in January Cerca do Macacothe main settlement, fell; and Zumbi was wounded. He eluded the Portuguese, but was betrayed, finally captured, and beheaded on November 20, Zumbi's brother continued the resistance, but Palmares was ultimately destroyed, and Velho and his followers were given land grants in the territory of Angola Janga, which they occupied as a means of keeping the kingdom from being reconstituted.
Although the kingdom was destroyed the Palmares region continued to host many smaller runaway settlements, and so the Portuguese still had the problems they had before, but there was no longer the centralized state in the mountains. Although it is often argued that the inhabitants of Palmares defended themselves using the martial art form called capoeirathere is no documentary evidence that the residents of Palmares actually used this method of fighting, which historian Thomas Desh-Obi has connected with the Benguela Highlands region of Angola.
Most accounts describe them as armed with bows, arrows and Guerra do contestado resumo yahoo dating. They were able to acquire guns by trading with the Portuguese and by allowing small-holding cattle raisers to use their land. A semi-fictional account of Palmares was made into the Brazilian film by Carlos DieguesQuilombo.
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