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Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November Although largely commercially self-funded, it is ultimately publicly owned; originally a subsidiary of the Independent Broadcasting Authority IBA[1] the station is now owned and operated by Channel Four Television Corporationa public corporation of the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport[2] which was established in and came into operation in Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: The Broadcasting Act began the process of adding a fourth, and Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpartwas formally created by an Act of Parliament in After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November The notion of a second commercial broadcaster Mmv films german mature fucking lessons the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in and its subsequent launch in ; the idea of an "ITV2" which came in was long expected and pushed for.

Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 finally became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPOthe governmentthe ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take.

It was most likely politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of almost three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had already been arranged in the early Mmv films german mature fucking lessons, when the launch of an ITV2 was highly anticipated.

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At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes, then only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV. The campaign was taken so seriously by Gwynfor Evansformer president of Plaid Cymruthat he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. Initially limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes Mmv films german mature fucking lessons be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in when S4C became a fully Welsh channel.

Since then, carriage on digital cablesatellite and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available. The first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said:.

Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundaswhich would form the basis of the station's jingles for its Mmv films german mature fucking lessons decade.

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The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdownat The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only ever identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words:.

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On its first day, Channel 4 also broadcast controversial soap opera Brooksidewhich ran until On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups. In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period, especially under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacswhere the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts.

Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley 's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives[5] which it premiered over several episodes in The channel often did not receive mass audiences for Mmv films german mature fucking lessons of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest.

Channel 4 also began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombayduring this time.

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In Septemberthe channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kanein which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, and discussed its influence, power and political connections in Brazil.

After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Company to the Channel Four Television Corporation ina shift in broadcasting style took place.

Instead of aiming for the fringes of society, it began to focus on the edges Mmv films german mature fucking lessons the mainstream, and the centre of the mass market itself. In the early s, Channel 4 began broadcasting reality formats such as Big Brother and obtained the rights to broadcast mass appeal sporting events like cricket and horse racing.

This new direction increased ratings and revenues. In addition, the corporation launched a number of new television channels through its new 4Ventures offshoot, including Film4At the RacesE4 and More4. Partially in reaction to its new "populist" direction, the Mmv films german mature fucking lessons Act directed the channel to demonstrate innovation, experimentation and creativity, appeal to the tastes and interests of a culturally diverse society and to include programmes of an educational nature which exhibit a distinctive character.

On 31 DecemberChannel 4 launched a new look and new idents in which the logo is disguised as different objects and the 4 can be seen in an angle. Under the leadership of Freeview founder Andy Duncansaw a change of direction for Channel 4's digital channels.

Channel 4 made E4 free-to-air on digital terrestrial televisionand launched a new free-to-air digital channel called More4.

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By October, Channel 4 had joined the Freeview consortium. New programmes such as the weekly, Mmv films german mature fucking lessons The Morning Report news programme were among some of the new content Channel 4 provided for the station, with the name 4Radio being used. As of earlyhowever, Channel 4's future involvement in radio remained uncertain. On 2 Novemberthe station celebrated its 25th birthday. It showed the first episode of Countdownan anniversary Countdown special, as well as a special edition of The Big Fat Quiz and using the original multicoloured — blocks logo on presentation and idents using the Fourscore jingle throughout the day.

In NovemberChannel 4 launched a week of 3D televisionbroadcasting selected programmes each night using stereoscopic ColorCode 3D technology. The accompanying 3D glasses were distributed through Sainsbury's supermarkets. On 29 SeptemberChannel 4 revamped its presentation for a fifth time; the new branding downplayed the "4" logo from most on-air usage, in favour of using the shapes from the logo in various forms. Four new idents were filmed by Jonathan Glazerwhich featured the shapes in various real-world scenes depicting the "discovery" and "origins" of the shapes.

The full logo was still occasionally used, but primarily for off-air marketing. Channel 4 also commissioned two new corporate typefaces, "Chadwick", and "Horseferry" a variation of Chadwick with the aforementioned shapes incorporated into its letter formsfor use across promotional material and on-air.

Channel 4 has raised concerns over how it might finance its public service obligations after digital switch-over. However, some certainty came with the announcement in April that Channel 4's digital switch-over costs would be paid for by licence fee revenues. On 28 MarchChannel 4 announced plans to launch a music channel "4Music" as a joint venture with British media company EMAP which would include carriage on the Freeview platform. On 15 August4Music was launched across the UK. In Juneit was announced that Alex Mahon would be the next chief executive, and would take over from David Abrahamwho left in November Channel 4 was established with, and continues to hold, a remit of public service obligations which it must fulfil.

The remit changes periodically, as dictated by various broadcasting and communications Mmv films german mature fucking lessons, and is regulated by the various authorities Channel 4 has been answerable to; originally the IBA, then the ITC and now Ofcom.

The preamble of the remit as per the Communications Act states that:. The remit also involves an obligation to provide programming for schools, [24] and a substantial amount of programming produced outside of Greater London.

Channel 4 was carried from its beginning on analogue terrestrial, which was practically the only means of television broadcast in the United Kingdom at the time. It continued to be broadcast through these means until the changeover to digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom was complete.

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Sinceit has been universally available on digital terrestrial, and the Sky platform initially encrypted, though encryption was dropped on 14 April and is now free of charge and available on the Freesat platform as well as having been available from various times in various areas, on analogue and digital cable networks. Due to its special status as a public service broadcaster with a specific remit, it is afforded free carriage on the terrestrial platforms, [26] in contrast with other broadcasters such as ITV.

Channel 4 is also seen outside the United Kingdom where it is widely available Mmv films german mature fucking lessons Ireland, Switzerland [28] and Belgium.

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Here viewers receive the channel either on basic cable subscription services or premium services. Channel 4 has been available in large parts of Ireland, especially border counties which have been able to receive terrestrial transmissions from Northern Ireland.

Channel 4 has been carried on Irish cable networks since the station went on the air in From 4 December Channel 4 was officially available to Sky viewers in Ireland; some programmes, mainly imports, are not aired on this channel variant, due to Channel 4 not owning the relevant broadcast rights within the country. As ofChannel 4 has an opt-out for the Republic of Ireland featuring Irish advertising, the schedule is the same as the UK channel.

In the past some programmes mostly international imports were not shown. Channel 4 is also carried by the Internet TV service TVCatchup [29] and was Mmv films german mature fucking lessons carried by Zattoo until the operator removed the channel from its platform.

Channel 4 also makes some of its programming available "on demand" via cable and the Internet through All 4.

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During the station's formative years, funding came from the ITV companies in return for their right to sell advertisements in their region on the fourth channel. Nowadays it pays for itself in much the same way as most privately run commercial stations, i. In practice, however, these other activities are loss-making, and are subsidised by the main network. The change in funding came about under the Broadcasting Act when the new corporation was afforded the ability to fund itself.

Originally this arrangement left a "safety net" guaranteed minimum Mmv films german mature fucking lessons should the revenue fall too low, funded by large insurance payments made to the ITV companies. Such a subsidy was never required, however, and these premiums were phased out by the government in The money would have come from the television licence fee and would have been the first time that money from the licence fee had been given to any broadcaster other than the BBC.

Channel 4 is a "publisher-broadcaster", meaning that it commissions or "buys" all of its programming from companies independent of itself, and was the first broadcaster in the United Kingdom to do so on any significant scale; such commissioning is a stipulation which is included in its licence to broadcast.

Although it was the first British broadcaster to commission all of its programmes from third parties, Channel 4 was the last terrestrial broadcaster to outsource its transmission and playout operations to Red Bee Mediaafter 25 years in-house. The requirement to obtain all content externally is stipulated in its licence. It was established with a specific intention of providing programming to groups of minority interests, not catered for by its competitors, which at the time were only the BBC and ITV.

Channel 4 also pioneered the concept of stranded programmingwhere seasons of programmes following a common theme would be aired and promoted together. Some would be very specific, and run for a fixed period of time; the 4 Mation season, for example, showed innovative animation.

During the station's early days, the screenings of innovative short one-off comedy films produced by a rotating line-up of alternative comedians went under the title of The Comic Strip Presents.


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